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  • ISSN: 2333-7109
    Current Issue
    Volume 4, Issue 2
    Research Article
    Mubashir Hassan*, Saba Shahzadi, and Zeeshan Iqbal
    Metabolic complications influence the prognosis of hyperglycemia and hypo-insulinemia which are main reasons for high mortality of diabetic patients. Diabetes type 2 (D2M) is a chronic debilitating disease characterized by insulin resistance and loss of β-cell mass. Klotho protein is considered as novel drug target for various diseases such as aging, phosphatemic and energy metabolic diseases. In current study, Klotho protein domain was modelled through homology approach. Moreover, various online tools were employed to predict the Rat Acute Toxicity, chemo-informatic and thermodynamic properties of selected compounds which show their therapeutical potential and drug like behavior. Furthermore, docking simulations were performed to check the binding affinity of compounds against Klotho domain. The binding affinity values (-7.46, -7.48 and -7.68 kcal/mol) and SAR analysis shows that all compounds were interacted within the active binding region of target protein. The potential binding modes of selected compounds against Klotho domain were explored using MD simulations through root mean square deviation and fluctuation (RMSD/RMSF) graphs. Our computational study suggests that by suppressing the Klotho-FGF21 mediating signaling pathway by inhibitors may help in to treat metabolic disorders.
    Aparna HS* and Mamatha Bhanu LS
    Immunoglobulins make up the largest portion of the humoral immunity, of which Immunoglobulin G (IgG) is the main class of antibodies present in ruminant colostrum. Proteolytic enzymes have been successfully used to generate peptides for reagent and therapeutic use. IgG purified from buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) colostrum was proteolytically digested by pepsin and pancreatin to generate peptide fragments and analyzed by nanoLC-MS/MS (Liquid chromatography - mass spectrometry). We identified 25 peptide sequence matches to heavy and light chains in the complimentary determining region of IgG. The small peptides generated were used to examine their interaction on Klebsiella pneumoniae outer membrane protein (OMP), a drug target site. IgG peptides were found to interact with porin emaluating standard antibiotic ampicillin suggesting their probable interaction to the drug target. A more detailed investigation would be interesting to establish newer functionalities to peptides of IgG which can have profound implications in developing therapeutic formulations.
    Short Communication
    Susanne Gerit Kircher*
    Introduction: Forty years ago, a medieval skeleton from the 9th century was found near Pitten, Austria. The skeleton´s burial position at the edge of the cemetery, the presence of multiple skeletal changes typical of mucopolysaccharidosis and its similarity to a painting by Virchow R200 years ago have previously been interpreted to indicate P faundler-Hurler disease, the early name for mucopolysaccharidosis type I.
    Materials and methods: These previous findings were re-evaluated and compared with those for another medieval male skull without lysosomal storage disease but with syphilitic changes. Of special interest was the shape of the skull and face, as well as the typical bony lesions observed in ‘dysostosis multiplex. X-rays of the tibial bones revealed the so-called Harris lines similar to those observed in Morquio syndrome in early reports by Morquio L.
    Results: Many parts of the skeleton showed signs consistent with dysostosis multiplex: mid-face hypoplasia with a broad nasal bridge, prominent jaw, osteosclerosis of the skull with scaphoid form, elongated sella turcica, signs of premature synostosis of the coronary suture, kyphoscoliosis, platyspondyly with ovoid-like vertebrae and more severe changes in the thoraco-lumbar region, broad iliac wings, severe joint changes in the hypoplastic acetabulae and markedly flat heads of the femoral bones in the varus-position, and shortening of the long bones, thus resulting in a moderate, short stature.
    Discussion: On the basis of the individual´s age and current knowledge of lysosomal storage diseases, this young man most probably had an attenuated form of one disease of this group of disorders. The burial of a disabled individual may indicate intellectual disability, as well as severe deficit in vision, hearing or immobility, which are observed in untreated adult patients with mucopolysaccharidoses or several other lysosomal storage disorders.
    Dimitrios Tsikas*
    Background: Peroxynitrite (ONOO−), the reaction product of nitric oxide (•NO) and superoxide anion (O2•–), is a potent oxidizing agent.
    Methods: We investigated reactions of cis-[9,10-2H2]-oleic acid in hemolysate with commercially available sodium peroxynitrite (Na+ONOO−). Fatty acids were extracted with ethyl acetate and converted to their pentafluorobenzyl (PFB) estertrimethylsilyl (TMS) ether derivatives (PFB-TMS) for structural identification by gas chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (GC-MS/MS) in the electron capture negative-ion chemical ionization mode.
    Results: The expected anion for dihydroxy-[9,10-2H2]stearic acids [M – PFB]– with mass-to-charge ratio (m/z) of 461 was subjected to collision-induced dissociation. We observed two closely eluting, baseline-separated GC peaks of comparable size with the retention times of the PFB-TMS derivatives of synthetic threo- and erythro-9,10-dihydroxy-stearic acids. The product ion mass spectra obtained from both GC peaks were virtually identical and contained the anions m/z 371, 355, 299, 281, 263, 93, and 89. Except for m/z 89 ([TMSO]–) and 93 ([C6H5O]–), all other mass fragments were by 2 Da larger than of synthetic unlabelled threo- and erythro-9,10-dihydroxy-stearic acids, indicating the presence of two deuterium atoms in the fatty acid skeleton at C-9 and C-10. The underlying mechanism is likely to involve addition of the peroxy group of peroxynitrite on the 9,10-double bond of oleic acid. A mechanism is proposed for the formation of the product ion m/z 93 from m/z 461.
    Dimitrios Tsikas* and Makrina Savvidou
    Background: Hepatic cytochrome P450 (CYP) isozymes catalyze the epoxidation of oleic acid to cis-epoxyoctadecanoic acid (cis-EpOA). In liver cirrhosis, plasma cis-EpOA concentrations are by about 50% lower compared to healthy subjects. The pathophysiology of preeclampsia (PE) and other pregnancy-related liver diseases is still enigmatic. We aimed to measure cis-EpOA plasma concentrations in women during the second trimester of pregnancy as a measure of hepatic CYP activity.
    Methods: cis-EpOA was measured by gas chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry in healthy pregnant women (Group 1, n=35), in women with abnormal placental function but without complication (Group 2, n=17), in women with pregnancies complicated by fetal growth restriction (FGR) (Group 3, n=14), and in women who eventually developed PE (Group 4, n=10).
    Results: Maternal plasma cis-EpOA concentrations were 59.5 [54.2 – 73.0] nM, 61.7 [54.0 – 85.9] nM, 70.4 [51.5 – 81.3] nM, and 63.7 [54.4 – 72.5] nM, respectively, cis-EpOA plasma concentrations did not differ between the groups (P=0.8; one-way ANOVA). In Group 4, cis-EpOA plasma concentration correlated with Birthweight centile (r=-0.81, P=0.007).
    Conclusion: Maternal plasma cis-EpOA concentration does not appear to play a role in the pathophysiology of PE, but may be involved in the regulation of fetal growth of these pregnancies.
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