Apple mosaic ilarvirus (ApMV) is very detrimental pathogen that the production of apple and hazelnut. The virus is spreaded with vegetative plant materials and it is gradually distributing in both pome fruits, hazelnut and oil rose plantations in Turkey. In this study, Symptomatically ApMV infected and uninfected hazelnut leaves obtained from Hazelnut Research Station, Giresun – Turkey and Total RNA of hazelnut cultivars ("Fosa", "Mincane", "Palaz" and "Tombul") was extracted according to lithium chloride based protocol and we use one tube RT-PCR technique for molecular determination of ApMV in some symptomatically infected Turkish hazelnut cultivars. The results showed that RT-PCR can be used efficiently for the determination of ApMV.
Nina Yao and Mike O'Donnell*
Cellular genomic DNA is replicated by a multiprotein replisome machine. The replisome contains numerous essential factors that unwind, prime and synthesize each of the two strands of duplex DNA. The antiparallel structure of DNA, and unidirectional activity of DNA polymerases, requires the two strands of DNA to be extended in opposite directions, and this structural feature requires distinctive processes for synthesis of the two strands. Genome duplication is of central importance to all cell types, and one may expect the replisome apparatus to be conserved from bacteria to human, as is the case with RNA polymerase driven transcription and ribosome mediated translation. However, it is known that the replication factors of bacteria are not homologous to those of archaea and eukaryotes, indicating that the replication process evolved twice, independently, rather than from a common ancestor cell. Thus, the different domains of life may exhibit significant differences in their mechanistic strategy of replication. In this review, we compare and contrast the different structures and mechanistic features of the cellular replication machinery in the three domains of life.
Pilli VS, William Plautz, and Rinku Majumder*
Protein S (PS), a γ-carboxyglutamate-containing serum protein, was unexpectedly discovered in 1977. Soon after its discovery, PS gained the attention of researchers because of its physiological importance, acting as a multifunctional protein at the intersection of blood coagulation, inflammation, and other cellular processes. Protein S functions as an anticoagulant by directly inhibiting procoagulants, such as Factor Xa (FXa), FVa, and FIXa, while also serving as a cofactor for anticoagulants such as Activated Protein C and Tissue Factor Pathway Inhibitor. By associating with C4b binding protein (C4BP), PS has also been shown to minimize the effect of inflammation. Finally, PS promotes efferocytosis through TAM family protein kinase receptors. Mutations in the PS gene cause pathological conditions such as deep vein thrombosis and hereditary ischemia. In this review, we summarize studies regarding the multiple functions of PS.
Zachary F. Burton*
Oral HSV 2 infections are spread by casual contact. HSV 2 induces coughing, so HSV 2 is spread as an aerosol, and viral laryngitis/bronchitis symptoms may indicate oral HSV 2 infection. Many physicians encounter HSV 2 oral infections but have difficulty with diagnosis. Using existing drugs, treatment options for HSV 2 oral infection could and should be improved. HSV 2 oral infections can become chronic and largely sequestered from orally administered drugs, which could be delivered more effectively.
Arunaksharan Narayanankutty, Muneera Vakayil, Jeksy J. Manalil, Smitha K. Ramavarma, Indu M. Suseela, Thekkekara Devassy Babu, and Achuthan C. Raghavamenon*
A volume of epidemiological, experimental and clinical data reveals the beneficial effect of omega 3 class of fatty acids in a variety of human ailments. However, conflicting results do exist and long term use of these highly unsaturated fatty acids has been cautioned due to its susceptibility to oxidative changes. Enzymatic oxidation of well-known omega 3 fatty acids docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) is known to produce 4-hydroxy 2-hexanal (4-HHE), an alpha beta unsaturated aldehyde. The molecule has been shown to protect endothelial cells through Nuclear factor related erythroid factor 2 (Nrf2) mediated HO-1 expression while induce toxicity in neuronal cells. Also high levels of HHE protein adducts are reported in neuronal degenerative tissues. Therefore it is likely that omega 3 fatty acids may have detrimental effect rather than beneficial effects when cellular/tissue redox status as well as fatty aldehyde detoxification system is challenged. The present review aims to open up a discussion on the possible health concerns upon long term consumption of omega3 fatty acids.
Solis-Leal A and Berges BK*
Genome editing is an exciting technology that allows for specific manipulation of complex genomes. While the original tools for genome manipulation had low efficiencies, genome editing tools discovered in the past fifteen years have been widely studied and great efforts have been required to improve their efficiency. This article summarizes how Zinc Finger Nuclease (ZFN), Transcription Activator-Like Effector Nuclease (TALEN) and Clustered Regularly Interspaced Palindromic Repeat (CRISPR)/Cas9 nucleases work, as well as the most meaningful advances achieved in the development of these technologies.
Whinnery C* and Wolff Kirsch
A number of emerging therapies require the safe and effective delivery of engineered genetic molecules to target cells within the body. These molecules include plasmids for gene-based vaccinations and upregulation of specific gene expressions in addition to RNAs for the downregulation of certain gene products. Nanoparticles constructed from the biopolymer chitosan are recognized as potentially ideal non-viral vectors for intravenous transport and delivery of these molecules. The base nanoparticle design demonstrates a number of attractive advantages, such as high biocompatibility, low toxicity, and ease of production. Disadvantages include issues with specific cell targeting, transfection efficiency, and impaired dissociation of genetic materials from nanoparticle polymers. Ongoing research seeks to address these shortcomings and improve the general usability of chitosan nanoparticles. This review highlights and summarizes some of the most recent advancements in chitosan nanoparticle applications as well as innovations in nanoparticle design.
Abstract: Research in tissue engineering related to the improved processes using nanofiber scaffolds has seen considerable progress in the last decade in the regeneration and construction of a number of artificial tissue types. These designs are generally viewed from the perspective of possible sources for clinical implant and transplant materials. Nowadays, advancement in engineering of tissues often referred to as three-dimensional (3D) cell culture provides enhanced activities owing to the 3D systems that readily imitate the in vivo setting for differentiated organs, than a typical 2D cell culture. Electro-spinning has been useful in producing nanofibrous scaffolds with large surface area and high pore volume that has the potential to mimic the morphology of a tissue extracellular matrix and hence promoting cell attachment, proliferation and differentiation. This review reports improved processes of tissue revitalization utilizing electrospunnanofibrous scaffolds. Different tissue engineering approaches including their advantages have been discussed. Also, various biomaterials from both synthetic and natural origin have been elaborated.