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  • ISSN: 2333-7109
    Early Online
    Volume 4, Issue 3
    Review Article
    Qayyum Husain*
    The immobilization of cellulolytic enzymes via nanosupport minimizes the problem of steric hindrances between enzyme and carrier, as it has been frequently observed in case of enzymes immobilized on the surface of bulk supports. Cellulolytic enzymes immobilized on the surface of nanomaterials or entrapped inside polymeric nanospheres showed high catalytic efficiency and yield of immobilization. Nanomaterials bound cellulolytic enzymes were found significantly more stable against heat, pH, storage, operational and several other kinds of denaturants. These immobilized enzyme preparations were found less inhibitory to their inhibitors and products. Immobilized enzymes retained remarkably high activity on repeated uses and the nanocarriers bound cellulolytic enzymes have demonstrated their potential in various fields such as in clarification of juices and wines, extraction of plant oils and coffee, bioconversion of agricultural waste, improving the digestibility of animal feed ingredients. A major application at present is in the biodegradation or bioconversion of cellulose to monomeric sugars. Agricultural waste rich in lignocellulosic material has been utilized in the production of large number of industrial products like ethanol, organic acids and other industrially important chemical compounds. Cellobiases immobilized on nanocarriers have also proved their potential as therapeutic agents.
    Review Article
    Valencia Jacobs
    Abstract: Research in tissue engineering related to the improved processes using nanofiber scaffolds has seen considerable progress in the last decade in the regeneration and construction of a number of artificial tissue types. These designs are generally viewed from the perspective of possible sources for clinical implant and transplant materials. Nowadays, advancement in engineering of tissues often referred to as three-dimensional (3D) cell culture provides enhanced activities owing to the 3D systems that readily imitate the in vivo setting for differentiated organs, than a typical 2D cell culture. Electro-spinning has been useful in producing nanofibrous scaffolds with large surface area and high pore volume that has the potential to mimic the morphology of a tissue extracellular matrix and hence promoting cell attachment, proliferation and differentiation. This review reports improved processes of tissue revitalization utilizing electrospunnanofibrous scaffolds. Different tissue engineering approaches including their advantages have been discussed. Also, various biomaterials from both synthetic and natural origin have been elaborated.
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