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  • ISSN: 2333-7117
    Early Online
    Volume 3, Issue 5
    Short Note
    Robert E. Baier*, Anne E. Meyer, Michael J. Aronica, Joseph M. Merrick, Timothy F. Murphy, and Drucy S. Borowitz
    Bacterial biofilms interfere with otherwise effective antimicrobials, exemplified by persistent colonization by Pseudomonas aeruginosa of cystic fibrosis (CF) lungs despite aggressive antibiotic treatment [1-3].
    Mini Review
    Sarahi Hernandez-Heredia and Sandradel Moral*
    AmyJ33 is a a-amylase from Bacillus amyloliquefaciens JJC33M is not calcium dependent and is active on native and raw starch. In this work, a deeper biochemical and kinetic characterization was made. AmyJ33 presented an optimum pH and temperature at 5 and 80°C, respectively, it was stable at pH 5 and a had half-life of 16h (40°C), 2.25 h (50°C) and 0.25 h (60°C). The enzyme produces glucose, maltose and maltopentaose traces of potato starch, in 180 min it hydrolyzed 25% of raw starch via exo-corrosion. Km and Vmax values were 10.6 mg/mL and 41.0 U/mg, respectively. AmyJ33 could be used in the baking industry or to produce ethanol on raw starch.
    Deepika Pamarthy, Debabrata Chowdhury, Utpal Bhadra, and Manika Pal Bhadra*
    Micro-RNAs (miRNAs) are endogenous, evolutionarily conserved, non-coding, RNAs of about 20-25 nucleotides in length. They control cell fate via cell proliferation, differentiation, apoptosis and stress response. They regulate gene expression by primarily disrupting mRNA translation and stability, or by modulating the transcription of target messenger RNAs. The expression of miRNA has been shown to be de-regulated in various human diseases, thus making them novel diagnostic biomarkers and therapeutic targets. It is challenging to target miRNAs with small molecules; different groups have identified small molecule modulators of miRNA by targeting various pathways. In the present review, we discuss about the role of micro-RNAs in cancer, and strategies for modulating their expression, which can be used to achieve therapeutic outcomes.
    Christine Gaspin*, Olivier Rue, and Matthias Zytnicki
    Annotation of microRNAs (miRNAs) is a prerequisite to the study of their functional analysis at the genome scale. The first list of criteria published for miRNA annotation was established in 2003 by the group of Thomas Tuschl and since then, a large number of bioinformatics resources relying on these criteria have been produced. Recently, the criteria and nomenclature considered for miRNA annotation were questioned by several groups with regard to available resources (databases, miRNA prediction software) but also considering all accumulated knowledge during the ten past years. In this paper, we revisit criteria for miRNA annotation and their importance to design relevant bioinformatics resources able to identify accurately members of known miRNA families as well as members of putative new families.
    Muniesh Muthaiyan Shanmugam*
    C. elegans has become a versatile model organism because of various advantages, such as being a small-sized non-parasitic worm with a transparent body and a short life cycle, along with the capacity to conduct in vivo live worm imaging, genetic amenability and cost-effective laboratory maintenance. It has also gained popularity because of the mapping of the developmental fate of every single cell and full genome sequencing of the worm. Further, among eukaryotic multi-cellular model organisms, C. elegans has the ability to generate a transgenic line in the shortest possible time compared to most other model organisms, which are being used to perform in vivo studies. Two methods for the transformation of C. elegans are widely used, namely, the microinjection of the transgene into the gonads and the bombardment of the transgene on the worm. The microinjection of C. elegans for the purpose of creating transgenic lines to study the effect of various genetic backgrounds is being carried out in almost every worm-based laboratory throughout the world. However, this technique of microinjection into the worm demands high technical expertise and expensive instruments, while the technique itself is low throughput. Until up to three years ago, the microinjection technique remained more or less same. This review focuses on recent advancements in relation to the microinjection technique, which involves the addition of automation via a computer-assisted system and the involvement of biomicrofluidic systems in order to increase the efficiency and rate of microinjection, thereby reducing fatigue experienced by the researcher when developing transgenic lines of C. elegans.
    Review Article
    Fouad M Badr*
    MicroRNAs are a large family of short non-coding RNA molecules involved in the regulation of gene expression. MIRN21 gene residing on chromosome 17 is linked to cancer initiation, progression and therapeutic response.
    The mature miRNA is 22 nucleotides long, forms one strand of the RNA duplex which is incorporated into a protein complex, targeting a partially complementary target mRNA. miRNA acts not only within cells of origin but are transported into the bloodstream and is taken up by recipient cells and processed into mature miRNA.
    miRNA expression signatures are associated not only with specific tumor subtypes but in clinical outcomes as well. Deregulation of miRNA in cancer takes place by transcriptional deregulation, epigenetic alterations or mutation.
    MiR-21 is considered an 'oncomir' since it could suppress the actions of several apoptotic and tumor suppressor genes, leading to tumor cell proliferation, inhibition of apoptosis, migration, invasion, angiogenesis, and metastasis. The reduction or deletion of a miRNA, because of defects of its biogenesis, leads to tumor formation. The amplification or over-expression of a miRNA that has an oncogenic role would also lead to tumor formation. Clinical characteristics of breast cancer associated with increased miR-21 expression level were significantly correlated with higher tumor grade, increased tumor size, lymph node involvement, lympho-vascular invasion and in patients with poor prognosis.
    Quantification of microRNAs can be used to predict the prognosis, clinical behavior of the tumor, and monitor the response to treatment. Altered serum or tissue microRNAs expression has served as a useful potential non-invasive biomarker for cancer detection, evaluation, and follow-up. The level of miR-21 expression is significantly associated with clinicopathological factors and the prognosis of tumor patients.
    Modulation of miR-21 expression as potential cancer therapy was investigated in various cancer types. The inhibition of miRNAs, using antisense oligonucleotides (ASOs) and artificial oligonucleotides constructed on a peptide-like backbone are effective techniques for investigating miRNA functions and targets. Therapeutic delivery, using specific antisense oligonucleotide of miR-21 may still be beneficial for a large number of cancers for which no cure is available. Inhibitors of miR-21 may also function as effective approaches for reversing drug resistance in cancer cells.
    Short Communication
    Trifiro G*, Bruno M, Barbaro E, Gambaro A, Vita V, Clausi MT, Franchino C, Palumbo MP, Floridi F, and De Pace R
    The occurrence of harmful cyanobacterial blooms in surface waters is often associated with the production of a variety of cyanotoxins, which are able to target specific human organs where they badly act. During this project, as a monitoring purpose, water samples were collected from both Lake Occhito, where an algal bloom (Planktothrix rubescens) was observed in 2009, and three tanks, acting as hydraulic junction (Finocchito, Pozzilli and Tavoliere). Next, the characterization of the main cyanobacteria was performed, in order to search cyanotoxins such as microcystins, followed by the quantitative determination by ELISA and HPLC-MS/MS technique. As a result, we observed that Planktothrix rubescens, currently known as a producer of microcystins, presented a flowering of 1.3 x 106 cells l-1 in March 2016. Moreover, the screening ELISA detected concentrations of microcystin LR over the limit of detection in 41samples, with a concentration range between 0.1 to 2.1 ng mL-1. Subsequently, concentrations above the limit of quantification for the only microcystin LR were confirmed by HPLC-MS/MS technique in 37 water samples, with concentrations range between 0.007 to 0.18 ng mL-1. However, many environmental and epidemiological studies are needed to define the risk assessment related to toxic eutrophication events in Italy.
    Special Issue on Diverse Roles of Nitric Oxide in Biomaterials and Implants
    Review Article
    Petukhov VI1*, Baumane LH2, Dmitriev EV3 and Vanin АF4
    Abstract: The paper informs about the specific shifts in metal-ligand homeostasis (MLH) of epidermic cells (hair) in Chernobyl accident liquidators, which are viewed by the authors as biomarkers of oxidative/nitrosative stress. The detected (by EPR-analysis) relationships between NO-production and MLH quantitative shifts can be indicative of the possible participation of nitric oxide in generation of cell electric potential.
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