Fadaka O. Adewale*, Ajiboye O. Basiru, Olowoyeye O. Ayorinde, Olayide I. Israel, and Ojo A. Oluwafemi
Cell death is defined by different factors ranging from default in functional properties, changes in morphological appearance and loss in immunological characteristics among so many others. These are brought about by accidental and programmed processes of cell death. Apoptosis, and the more recently discovered necroptosis, are two avenues of programmed cell death. Cancer cells survive by evading these two programs, driven by oncogenes and tumor suppressor genes.
A vast knowledge and advancement on the regulation of apoptosis and necrosis is needed for a functional approach in pathological condition. In the last decade, researches have revealed that novel therapies against melanoma have allowed for a prolonged survival rate of malignant melanoma while not allowing for a cure because of its aggressiveness and death resistance.
In this review, the implications and insights into the signaling networks involved in the regulation of programmed cell death for the diagnosis or treatment of skin cancer will be brought to foresight.
Khent P. Alcantara*, Melvie Joy C. Abris, Mariethel P. Calpotura, Sittie Rochaina M. Macarasam, Zuellen C. Manalo, Florendo C. Matias, and Connie C. Tamondong
Cancer has been a great dilemma to the medical sectors worldwide since the mortality rate is higher than its survival rate. The abruptly increasing mortality rate of cancer includes it among the top leading causes of demise worldwide. The presence of tumor, a mass formation of abnormal cells, in the body automatically suggests that the patient is diagnosed with cancer. Some medical oncologists stated that inhibiting the growth of blood vessels around the tumor might cure the disease, as the supply of nutrients to the tumor will also be inhibited. Among the endemic plants in the Philippines, Dillenia sibuyanensis (DS), from the family Dilleniaceae has no known reports regarding its pharmacological activity; thus, researchers have investigated its angio-suppresive and antioxidant properties. Chick Chorioallantoic Membrane (CAM) Assay and DPPH Radical Scavenging Activity Assay were accomplished to determine the angio-suppressive and antioxidant property of the plant, respectively. The data gathered showed that crude ethanolic leaf extract of DS exhibits the highest angio-suppressive activity with the percent decrease of 88.10% in the length of the tubule complexes, 64.77% in the size of the tubule complexes, and 82.85% in the number of junctions formed, as compared to the other solvents used. The evaluation of antioxidant property of the ethanolic leaf extracts of DS using DPPH Radical Scavenging Activity Assay, showed percent inhibition of 82%. The gathered data firmly proposed that D. sibuyanensis might be used as an antioxidant agent by its ability to inhibit oxidative stress and to neutralize the free radicals and as an angio-suppressive agent by its ability to suppress the growth and formation of blood vessels supplying the nutrients to the tumor, thus, preventing cancer
It is widely stated that treatment of human cells with genotoxic agents either results in activation of cell cycle checkpoints to facilitate DNA repair and promote cell survival, or leads to apoptosis or other modes of cell death (e.g., necrosis). However, as extensively discussed recently [1-3],..