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  • ISSN: 2373-9436
    Early Online
    Volume 4, Issue 4
    Research Article
    Indrani Krishnappa1, Aneel Myageri2, Dinesh Udipi Shastri2, and Ravikala rao2
    Background: Intraoperative cytology is supportive and diagnostic of glial lesions. This is due to the dyscohesive nature of glial lesions and lack of dense connective tissue. We have tried to assess the utility of smear technique in rapid diagnosis of glial lesions.
    Aims: To study the cytological features of various glial lesions and to assess the utility of smear technique in intraoperative diagnosis of these lesions by comparing the cytology features with their respective histopathologic features.
    Setting & design: This study was conducted in the Department of Pathology, SDMCMSH, Dharwad over a period of 2 years.
    Materials & methods: Twenty neurological specimens of suspected glial tumours received in the department of pathology for frozen section were studied. Squash preparation was done on all the cases and stained with Hematoxylin & Eosin (H & E) staining. An intraoperative diagnosis was made on squash preparation and frozen section slides. The diagnosis on squash smears was compared with the final diagnosis.
    Results: Cytological correlation was seen in 18 out of 20 cases. Erroneous intraoperative diagnosis was given in one case each of oligodendroglioma and high grade astrocytoma. Hundred percent diagnostic accuracy of squash cytology was observed in cases of low grade astrocytomas, ependymoma, subependymoma and ganglioglioma.
    Conclusion: Intraoperative cytology is fairly accurate and useful in intraoperative consultation of glial tumours. However squash technique has its limitations in certain cases like oligodendroglioma and grading of glial tumours.
    Review Article
    Jose A. Lopez-Ruiz*, Juan A. Mieza-Arana, Julio Uruena-Gonzlez, Emilli Gimenez-Garai, Javier Regalado-Bilbao, and Francisco Javier Garcia-Bernal
    Background: Breast Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) follows - up is recommended in women at high risk (either genetic risk or family history) of breast cancer. However, its use is not extended in the case of patients with personal history of breast cancer, although this is a risk factor for new malignant breast tumors. We present two cases diagnosed only by MRI in patients with a history of breast cancer.
    Method: Two cases of patients with a personal history of breast cancer underwent both mammography and breast ultrasound as follow - up are presented.
    Results: Two patients of 38 and 42 years of age diagnosed of unilateral breast cancer 3 and 7 years ago, respectively. Both of them were clinically asymptomatic and follow - up in their health centers only by mammography in case 1 and with both mammography and breast ultrasound in case 2, being reported as without pathological findings. In both cases, only the breast MRI allowed to diagnose a new tumor in the contralateral breast.
    Conclusions: In the follow - up of patients with a personal history of breast cancer, breast MRI allows the detection of non-visualized tumors with routine mammographic and breast ultrasound controls. Therefore, we recommend its use along with mammography, especially if they have undergone reconstructive surgery.
    Case Report
    Poorani Gananathan*, Aruna Prakasa Rao, Ganesan Singaravelu, and Elanchezhiyan Manickam
    Laser is a monochromatic, coherent, tunable light source available in different wavelength, mode and power. Laser is used in diagnosis and therapeutics in medicine. Photonanotherapy (PNT) is an emerging cancer treatment methodology involves the combination of light photons and nanoparticles. Basic approach of this review is defining features of lasers and their breakthrough potential in design and development of cancer treatment. In this review, types of lasers employed to different nanoparticles such as gold, carbon, silica and iron oxide nanoparticles in PNT were discussed. A nanoparticle hit with laser of different wavelength produces different responses in cells. This review explains the modified nano particle response and cell death mechanism by laser parameters. PNT creates hyperthermia, photo ablation, vaporization, carbonization and apoptosis in cells based on nanoparticles and light source combination. Over these years, cancer-targeting treatment has been greatly improved by new tools and approaches based on nanotechnology. In contrary, 67 articles were studied to understand the role of lasers in cancer therapy. Laser wavelengths ranging from 514 to 980 nm were discussed in this review. Also we discussed the general principle of intracellular mechanisms, size and shape of nanoparticles employed for PNT.
    Special Issue on Lung Cancer China
    Short Communication
    Wanqing Chen*, Rongshou Zheng, Hongmei Zeng and Siwei Zhang
    Cancer is an emerging health issue in China and many other countries of the world. Lung cancer is the first leading cancer diagnosed and cause of cancer death for many years in China with a rapid increasing trend during the past several decades [1,2]. The incidence rate of lung cancer in China was relatively higher and also increasing with a more rapid rate than in western countries. Lots of risk factors such as cigarette smoking, air pollution has been proved as the risk factor of the disease [3-6].
    Review Article
    Jingjing Liu, Ying Cheng*, Hui Li and Shuang Zhang
    Abstract: Small Cell Lung Cancer (SCLC) account for almost 15% of lung cancers, which is strongly associated with cigarette smoking. It has a high propensity for early metastatic dissemination. Since few improvements in treatment effectiveness have been seen over the past 30 years new treatment strategies for improving therapeutic effect were urgently needed. China is the second most populous in the world and has many smokers. The morbidity and mortality of lung cancer are higher than the worldwide average. Because the government didn't take effective measures for smoking cessation, so the morbidity of SCLC has no downward trend. The progresses of studies in SCLC are slowly, such as diagnose, treatment and translational medicine. In recent years, with the emphasis of the society and the public on early diagnosis and early treatment of tumors and the progress of medical diagnosis technology, Chinese scholars have made many attempts in the treatment and research of SCLC.
    Xiu-Yi Zhi1*, Xiao-Nong Zou2, Mu Hu1, Yuan Jiang3 and You-lin Qiao4
    Abstract: In recent decades the age-specific mortalities of lung cancer in China have been increased to 9 times in men and women and it become one of the most important public health issues. The high prevalence of smoking in men and more than 70% of nonsmokers, both men and women, could be the biggest contributable factor for those consequences. While the abundant evidence on the health risks of exposure to smoking were available in both international and domestic studies the awareness on the health hazards from tobacco use were quit low in Chinese peoples, even in the health providers. Changes in the contents and the process of the tobacco products in Chinese tobacco product markets were accompanied by increased numbers of the lung cancer cases, increased adenocarcinoma and decreased squamous cell carcinoma of the lung, rather than reducing the overall lung cancer cases. Those suggested that comprehensive smoking-free policy should be implemented in all public places and the process of smoking-free legislation should put forward to create the legal environment and provide effective protection for reducing the incidence of lung cancer. Popularized health education should be also enhanced to raise the public awareness on smoking hazards.
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