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  • ISSN: 2373-9436
    Early Online
    Volume 4, Issue 4
    Research Article
    Indrani Krishnappa1, Aneel Myageri2, Dinesh Udipi Shastri2, and Ravikala rao2
    Abstract:
    Background: Intraoperative cytology is supportive and diagnostic of glial lesions. This is due to the dyscohesive nature of glial lesions and lack of dense connective tissue. We have tried to assess the utility of smear technique in rapid diagnosis of glial lesions.
    Aims: To study the cytological features of various glial lesions and to assess the utility of smear technique in intraoperative diagnosis of these lesions by comparing the cytology features with their respective histopathologic features.
    Setting & design: This study was conducted in the Department of Pathology, SDMCMSH, Dharwad over a period of 2 years.
    Materials & methods: Twenty neurological specimens of suspected glial tumours received in the department of pathology for frozen section were studied. Squash preparation was done on all the cases and stained with Hematoxylin & Eosin (H & E) staining. An intraoperative diagnosis was made on squash preparation and frozen section slides. The diagnosis on squash smears was compared with the final diagnosis.
    Results: Cytological correlation was seen in 18 out of 20 cases. Erroneous intraoperative diagnosis was given in one case each of oligodendroglioma and high grade astrocytoma. Hundred percent diagnostic accuracy of squash cytology was observed in cases of low grade astrocytomas, ependymoma, subependymoma and ganglioglioma.
    Conclusion: Intraoperative cytology is fairly accurate and useful in intraoperative consultation of glial tumours. However squash technique has its limitations in certain cases like oligodendroglioma and grading of glial tumours.
    Brandon Stone, Bryan JT* Andrew MB, Laura EF, Zakiya K, Amro A, George DW, and Robert PJ
    Background: The ability to identify patients that have disease progression soon after surgical resection could guide treatment as well as aid in the development of novel targeted therapies. This study correlates gene expression and overall survival in patients with pancreatic adenocarcinoma.
    Methods: Patients with pancreatic adenocarcinoma treated with definitive surgery without neoadjuvant therapy were grouped into short-term (<10 months, n=13) and long-term (>20 months, n=11) survivors. RNA was extracted from snap-frozen tissues, and global gene expression was examined. Pathway analysis was also performed.
    Results: The mean overall survival in each group was 7.5 and 32.0 months. We identified 163 genes that were differentially expressed between patients who survived <10 months and >20 months after definitive surgery. Many of the genes identified have known prognostic importance; however, less than half of these genes have been reported to be associated with survival in pancreatic adenocarcinoma. Pathway analysis identified expression targets of SP1, JUN, and EGF to be highly regulated based upon differences in overall survival.
    Conclusion: In pancreatic adenocarcinoma patients who have undergone definitive resection, we have identified multiple genes associated with inferior survival. Many of the genes reported in this study have not previously been linked to overall survival in this patient population.
    Review Article
    Jose A. Lopez-Ruiz*, Juan A. Mieza-Arana, Julio Uruena-Gonzlez, Emilli Gimenez-Garai, Javier Regalado-Bilbao, and Francisco Javier Garcia-Bernal
    Background: Breast Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) follows - up is recommended in women at high risk (either genetic risk or family history) of breast cancer. However, its use is not extended in the case of patients with personal history of breast cancer, although this is a risk factor for new malignant breast tumors. We present two cases diagnosed only by MRI in patients with a history of breast cancer.
    Method: Two cases of patients with a personal history of breast cancer underwent both mammography and breast ultrasound as follow - up are presented.
    Results: Two patients of 38 and 42 years of age diagnosed of unilateral breast cancer 3 and 7 years ago, respectively. Both of them were clinically asymptomatic and follow - up in their health centers only by mammography in case 1 and with both mammography and breast ultrasound in case 2, being reported as without pathological findings. In both cases, only the breast MRI allowed to diagnose a new tumor in the contralateral breast.
    Conclusions: In the follow - up of patients with a personal history of breast cancer, breast MRI allows the detection of non-visualized tumors with routine mammographic and breast ultrasound controls. Therefore, we recommend its use along with mammography, especially if they have undergone reconstructive surgery.
    Case Report
    Poorani Gananathan*, Aruna Prakasa Rao, Ganesan Singaravelu, and Elanchezhiyan Manickam
    Laser is a monochromatic, coherent, tunable light source available in different wavelength, mode and power. Laser is used in diagnosis and therapeutics in medicine. Photonanotherapy (PNT) is an emerging cancer treatment methodology involves the combination of light photons and nanoparticles. Basic approach of this review is defining features of lasers and their breakthrough potential in design and development of cancer treatment. In this review, types of lasers employed to different nanoparticles such as gold, carbon, silica and iron oxide nanoparticles in PNT were discussed. A nanoparticle hit with laser of different wavelength produces different responses in cells. This review explains the modified nano particle response and cell death mechanism by laser parameters. PNT creates hyperthermia, photo ablation, vaporization, carbonization and apoptosis in cells based on nanoparticles and light source combination. Over these years, cancer-targeting treatment has been greatly improved by new tools and approaches based on nanotechnology. In contrary, 67 articles were studied to understand the role of lasers in cancer therapy. Laser wavelengths ranging from 514 to 980 nm were discussed in this review. Also we discussed the general principle of intracellular mechanisms, size and shape of nanoparticles employed for PNT.
    Mini Review
    Samantha Messina* and Luigi Frati
    RAS oncogenes are master regulators of cancers. Somatic mutation in KRAS, HRAS and NRAS genes account for approximately 30% of human cancers. KRAS is the most frequently mutated isoform in RAS-driven cancers. Brain cancers are RAS-driven cancers despite have no RAS mutation or amplification and its pivotal role in brain tumorigenesis has been well documented. Indeed, its generally accepted that glioblastoma shows aberrant activation of RAS/MAPK cascade due to mutations in upstream and downstream regulators. Since pioneering study reporting that let-7 miRNA acted as tumor suppressor by repressing RAS oncogene, growing evidence has suggested the importance of miRNA targeting the RAS-MAPK in brain oncogenesis.Let-7 family members are direct and strong regulator of the RAS family. K-RAS, N-RAS and H-RAS mRNAs contain let-7 binding sites in 3UTR sequences with clinical outcomes in some cancer. Although the expression levels of let-7 miRNA family are not reduced in brain tumors (with few exceptions), growing evidences show that let-7 miRNA inhibits the malignant behavior - proliferation, migration and invasion - of glioma cells and glioma stem-like cells as well as the tumor size in nude mice xenograft transplanted glioblastoma (GBM) via KRAS inhibition. More recently, genetic loss of let-7 is involved in neuroblastoma oncogenesis placing let-7 disruption at the center of neuroblastoma pathogenesis. In addition, loss of let-7 increases resistance to certain chemotherapeutic drugs and to radiation therapy in GBM. We aim this review at summarizing and updating current knowledge on the contribution of let-7 miRNA interplay with KRAS to oncogenesis of brain tumors.
    Research Article
    Ayse Kubra Karaboga Arslan*, Ebru Qzturk, and Mukerrem Betul Yerer
    Lung adenocarcinoma is one of the most commonly occurring cancer types and it is the leading cause of cancer-related deaths worldwide. Vanadium compounds have different pharmacological effects and have cytotoxic properties. Aim of this study was by continuous monitoring to assay the cytotoxicity of vanadium pentoxide (V2O5) on human lung carcinoma cell line (A549) and human bronchial epithelial cell line (Beas-2b). Eight different concentrations of V2O5 between 2.5-40M were applied on the cells and xCELLigence Real Time Cell Analysis (RTCA) was conducted to evaluate the impedance alterations over the Cell index values. Our results suggest the idea that V2O5 causes toxicity both on A549 and Beas-2b. We observed a dose-dependent cytotoxicity at 15 M and higher doses in the A549 cells which might reveal its anticancer metallodrug potential. However, for Beas-2b cells although the cytotoxicity of V2O5 started after 5 M, after 10 M, the CI alterations reached a stable value at all doses applied, resulting in a maximum reduction of 50% in this healthy cells. Therefore these results revealed us that, 20 M V2O5 at which cytotoxicity is initiated or up to 40 M at which the IC50 level have been reached in A549 can also be used in Beas-2b since the maximum toxicity have been already reached at/over 10M. We demonstrated that in cytotoxicity assays, the xCELLigence system can be used to optimize parameters such as the exposure time and compound concentrations. This study is the known first study to show V2O5s effects at these concentrations on A549 and Beas-2b in a real-time manner.
    Special Issue on Lung Cancer China
    Short Communication
    Wanqing Chen*, Rongshou Zheng, Hongmei Zeng and Siwei Zhang
    Cancer is an emerging health issue in China and many other countries of the world. Lung cancer is the first leading cancer diagnosed and cause of cancer death for many years in China with a rapid increasing trend during the past several decades [1,2]. The incidence rate of lung cancer in China was relatively higher and also increasing with a more rapid rate than in western countries. Lots of risk factors such as cigarette smoking, air pollution has been proved as the risk factor of the disease [3-6].
    Review Article
    Jingjing Liu, Ying Cheng*, Hui Li and Shuang Zhang
    Abstract: Small Cell Lung Cancer (SCLC) account for almost 15% of lung cancers, which is strongly associated with cigarette smoking. It has a high propensity for early metastatic dissemination. Since few improvements in treatment effectiveness have been seen over the past 30 years new treatment strategies for improving therapeutic effect were urgently needed. China is the second most populous in the world and has many smokers. The morbidity and mortality of lung cancer are higher than the worldwide average. Because the government didn't take effective measures for smoking cessation, so the morbidity of SCLC has no downward trend. The progresses of studies in SCLC are slowly, such as diagnose, treatment and translational medicine. In recent years, with the emphasis of the society and the public on early diagnosis and early treatment of tumors and the progress of medical diagnosis technology, Chinese scholars have made many attempts in the treatment and research of SCLC.
    Xiu-Yi Zhi1*, Xiao-Nong Zou2, Mu Hu1, Yuan Jiang3 and You-lin Qiao4
    Abstract: In recent decades the age-specific mortalities of lung cancer in China have been increased to 9 times in men and women and it become one of the most important public health issues. The high prevalence of smoking in men and more than 70% of nonsmokers, both men and women, could be the biggest contributable factor for those consequences. While the abundant evidence on the health risks of exposure to smoking were available in both international and domestic studies the awareness on the health hazards from tobacco use were quit low in Chinese peoples, even in the health providers. Changes in the contents and the process of the tobacco products in Chinese tobacco product markets were accompanied by increased numbers of the lung cancer cases, increased adenocarcinoma and decreased squamous cell carcinoma of the lung, rather than reducing the overall lung cancer cases. Those suggested that comprehensive smoking-free policy should be implemented in all public places and the process of smoking-free legislation should put forward to create the legal environment and provide effective protection for reducing the incidence of lung cancer. Popularized health education should be also enhanced to raise the public awareness on smoking hazards.
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