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  • ISSN: 2333-7133
    Bisphenol A in Dental Materials: A Review
    Authors: Liang Chen* and Byoung In Suh
    Abstract: Objective: To review scientific literature on BPA in dental materials, introducing the chemistry of BPA and its derivatives, and evaluating the BPA release and exposure from dental materials and the potential human health risks. Materials & methods: A search of English peer-reviewed dental literature from Pub Med and MEDLINE databases was conducted, and the key words included bisphenol A and BPA.
    Clinical Case Presentation: Challenging the American Board of Operative Dentistry Certification Examination
    Authors: Michael J. Metz1* and Cynthia J. Miller2
    Challenging The American Board of Operative Dentistry Certification (ABOD) was one of the most humbling, challenging and gratifying experiences of my dental career. To say that it is an honor to join the elite names on that list would be a serious understatement.
    Applications of Cone Beam Computed Tomography (CBCT) in Implant Treatment Planning
    Authors: Vandana Kumar1* and Keerthana Satheesh2
    The objective of this article is to review the literature which describes the evolving role of cone-beam computed tomography in dental implant treatment planning. The literature supports the use of CBCT in dental implant treatment planning particularly in regards to linear measurements.
    Effect of Light Curing Tip Distance and Immersion Media on the Degree of Conversion, Sorption and Solubility of Methacylate and Silorane-Based Composites
    Authors: Diogo de Azevedo Miranda1*, Nubia Pavesi Pini2, Glaucia Maria Bovi Ambrosano3, Flavio Henrique Baggio Aguiar3, Debora Alves Nunes Leite Lima3 and Jose Roberto Lovadino4
    The Effect of Home-Bleaching Agents on Surface Roughness of Restorative Materials
    Authors: Dionysopoulos D*, Koliniotou-Koumpia E, Gerasimou P and Papadopoulos C
    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of two home-bleaching agents (10 and 20% carbamide peroxide) on the surface roughness of four tooth-colored restorative materials over time.
    Latest Articles
    Review Article
    Michel Goldberg*
    Endochondral and membranous (intramembranous) ossification control skeletogenesis. In contrast to endochondral ossification, in which cartilage is replaced by bone, membranous mineralisation involves a highly vascular connective tissue, loaded by proliferating osteoprogenitor cells. The face is formed mostly by intramembranous bones (premaxillary, maxillary, zygomatic, petrous portions of the temporal bone), with the contribution of the frontal, parietal, the squamous portions of the temporal and interoccipital bones. Maxillary and mandible formation, tooth crown and root shaping are related to eruption. Dentin structure is also linked to teeth and bone early stages of development. Growth and transcription factors regulate tooth development, eruption, and resorption. Secretion of 4um/daily contribute to the von Ebner and/or Andresen lines, displaying dentin periodicity.
    Michel Goldberg*
    In addition to initial maturation, dental tissues maturation physiological development involves ions and molecules adsorption at the surface of tooth enamel. Demineralization/remineralization, absorbance and exchanges are associated to tooth function. Crystals lengthening and thickening provide significant enamel maturation. Dentin maturation implicates the closure of tubules, and tooth eruption in the oral cavity. Pulp chamber is gradually reduced, the teeth becoming more resistant to the progression of dental caries. Pulp stones or/and diffuse mineralization significantly reflects tooth maturation.
    Michel Goldberg*
    Pulp cells biology includes sensitive and sensory-motor nerves, blood vessels and a inflammatory vascular network (T-lymphocytes, B-lymphocytes, dendritic cells, NK cells. Fibroblasts (or pulpoblasts) are linked by intercellular junctions (desmosomes and gap-junctions). After migration from the inner pulp toward the periphery, pulpoblasts are transferred toward the outer pulp border. The cells are renewed after they underwent functional apoptosis. Angiogenesis, neuronal differentiation, inflammatory cells, constitute the bulk of pulp cells. The dental pulp extracellular matrix components include collagen and non-collagenous molecules. Non-carious and carious lesions are the major non-genetic events leading to pulp degradation.
    Review Article
    Michel Goldberg*
    Pulp therapies aiming to keep alive the dental pulp use either indirect (IPT) or direct procedures (DPC). It is depend of the stage and depth of the carious lesion, of the exposure time, and the degree of bacterial invasion, associated or not with the pulp degradation. Our aim was to clarify the formation of reactionary or reparative dentin.
    Michel Goldberg*
    A decrease in calcium, phosphorus and carbonate composition was established in the initial lcarious lesion, whereas magnesium was increased both in the carious enamel translucent and dark zones. Non-apatitic phases were detected in arrested carious dentin, characterized as weddellite, whewellite, calcite, brushite, whitloockite and octocalcium phosphate. Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) and cysteine cathepsins are endopeptidases degrading all extracellular components during caries degradation. After an initial lesion (white spot), the carious disease expands throughout the whole enamel thickness. Afterward, the carious lesion reaches the dentino-enamel junction and penetrates into dentin, crossing the mantle dentin, and then infiltrating the outer part of circumpulpal dentin. Lesions are active or arrested, and this evolution determines the speed of caries progression. Dentin-like bridges of reactionary or reparative dentins are formed along or inside the pulp. The lumens of the dentinal tubules are occluded by sclerotic re-precipitations. From the outer to the inner dentin layers, two carious zones are found: 1) the body of the lesion (25-50 % porosity) located approximately 15 to 30 m beneath the overlying intact enamel surface zone (1 to < 5% pore volume) forming the bulk of the decay, and 2) the translucent zone (with a loss of about 1-2 % mineral). More inwardly, two zones were also identified: 1) the dark zone (5-10 % porosity) situated beneath the sclerotic zone and 2) the translucent zone limitting the lesion. The carious lesions may be classified into a superficial lesion [dental plaque & acquired pellicle, in close association with the surface layer (2 - 3 m)], deep lesions (between 3 - 5 m) and very deep lesions, leading to pulp exposure, and subsequenly to pulp inflammation and necrosis.
    Michel Goldberg*
    Four main preventive strategies have been developed: fluorides administration, fissure sealing, dietary choice, and plaque control. Caries is a dynamic and reversible process. The initial demineralization step occurs when plaque acids on the tooth surface dissolve calcium and phosphate ions from the hydroxyapatite. The remineralization step occurs when the salivary free calcium and phosphate ions are driven back into the demineralized zone. S.mutans (SM) and S.sobrinus (SS) are the most important colonizers in terms of human caries. SM ferment sucrose and produce organic acids including lactic, acetic, formic and propionic acids. Cariogenic bacteria produce insoluble extracellular polysaccharides, that enhance their adherence to the tooth surface and contribute to biofilm formation. Strategies consistent with the prevention of disease via the principles of the ecological plaque hypothesis include: inhibition of plaque acid production, avoidance between main meals of foods and drinks containing fermentable sugars, consumption of foods/drinks that contain non-fermentable sugar substitutes, stimulation of saliva flow after main meals. Prevention program is based on plaque control and topical application of fluorides, after scaling, root planning and conventional caries therapy.
    Michel Goldberg*
    Following symmetric or asymmetric divisions, stem cells are defined by three major properties: self-renewal, clonogenic proliferation, and multipotent or pluripotent cells, susceptible to differentiate into several distinct lineages. At the end of the successive phases, they become terminally differentiated cells. Oral stem cells take origin in niches where a local microenvironment supports the repair and regeneration of tissues or organs. The progeny of stem cells share a similar gene expression profile for a variety of transcriptional regulators, extracellular matrix proteins, growth factors/receptors, cell adhesion molecules, and some lineage makers characteristic of fibroblasts, endothelial cells, smooth muscle cells, odontoblasts, and osteoblasts. The identification of perivascular cells as a native source of mesenchymal progenitor cells pave the way to the development of novel oral regenerative therapies.
    Michel Goldberg*
    Cariostatic effects of fluorides play important role is caries prevention, both administrated systemically and/or topically. Tunnels located inside apatite crystals are acting as ions exchangers favoring diffusion pathways and substitution of ions such as fluorides inside the crystal lattice. Fluorides increase the solubility of the mineral components and the remineralization process. Systemic fluoride decreases the number and severity of the carious lesions. At low doses, white spots appear resulting from enamel hypomineralization. Pittings forming horizontal lines, groves and altered enamel surfaces merging into large pigmented defects (from brown to black) contribute to enamel pathologies (hypoplasia, and enamel staining). The needs for fluoride consumption have been carefully identified. The effects of topical applications have been evaluated according to the age of the patient, the frequency of ingestion, and the mode of absorption (community water fluoridation, tablets and salt fluoridation, fluoride-containing tooth pastes, mouth rinses, varnishes, silver diamine fluoride, and remineralization agents). The decision concerning the fluoride levels and how they are administered should be balanced between the risk of developing caries and dental fluorosis.
    Review Article
    Michel Goldberg*
    Systemic and topical infections using irrigants are efficiently treated by antibiotics. Periapical lesions as well as microorganisms associated to the smear layer constitute the target of these therapies. In addition to dental and Peridontal infections, intracanalar medicaments, such as ledermix, septomycine, tetracyclines, and the triple antibiotic paste including metronidazole, ciprofloxacin and minocycline, has been reported to be effective in the cleaning and bacterial inactivation of the root canal system. Topical antimicrobial and root canal irrigants may be used after the degradation of the dental pulp. These irrigants include calcium hydroxide, sodium hypochlorite and chlorhexidine. Others root medication such as EDTA, MTAD, triclosan, metronidazol, and phenol derivative are also efficient in this context. All these irrigants are functioning in close association with water, viscous or oil based vehicles. Root canal disinfection is a need before filling of root lumen with a stable paste and a tight seal of the coronal part of the tooth. Eliminating the bacterial smear layer constitute a crucial step which is a prerequisite leading to the regeneration of the radicular pulp, that plays a major role of restorative endodontic treatment allowing apexification.
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