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  • ISSN: 2333-7133
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    Volume 5, Issue 1
    Short Communication
    Sabrina Carvalho Gomes* and Patricia Daniela Melchiors Angst
    The supragingival plaque control need has been sustained by the concept of the periodontal disease as an opportunistic infection. This concept relies on the fact that the supragingival biofilm has been proven to be essential for the establishment of the subgingival biofilm, this opportunity arising through a retro-feeding process between the supragingival biofilm formation and maturation and the inflammatory response. Since decades, the impact of the supragingival plaque control has been recognized as an important factor to modulate the subgingival response, regarding clinical, microbiological, and immunological indicators. These studies collectively underscore the supragingival control as essential not only for prevention of periodontal disease and maintenance of therapy results but also for the treatment of periodontitis, favoring subgingival inflammation reduction as well as the stability of attachment levels. Thus, it can be concluded that an adequate supragingival control is essential for the quality of periodontal therapy, migrating from a second-plan intervention to a unique unquestionable importance.
    Review Article
    Michel Goldberg* and Azumi Hirata
    Derived from neural crests, the mature pulp is due to the proliferation and condensation of apical cells implicated in root lengthening. Adult cells are bound together by intercellular junctions (desmosomes and gap junctions), forming a network. They are further transported to the crown. Root lengthening is associated to tooth eruption and to vertical sliding. Composed by type I and III collagens, fibronectin, tenascin, and other non-collagenous proteins that include a series of proteoglycans, the extracellular matrix is favoring the sliding of pulp cells. A micro-vascular network differing in the root and crown, supply the blood flow. Endothelial cells, pericytes and lymphatic vessels are contributing to direct the vascular implication to pulp development. Inflammatory and immunocompetent cells are present with in the pulp, namely dendritic cells, macrophages, lymphocytes and endothelial cells. They add to the different forms of the immune response of the dental pulp implicated in the different types of programed cell death. Nerves play role in the neutrophin family, identified within the pulp. Neuromediators are released near the nerves. Stem cells issued from the pulp of permanent and deciduous teeth, from the apical papilla and from the dental follicle, contribute to pulp healing and regeneration. Sliding of the pulp cells from the apical to the coronal pulp, and later the lateral sliding due to the effects of Wnt visualized after BIO implantation, are factors implicated in the formation of reparative and reactionary dentin, and consequently to pulp healing.
    Research Article
    Masae Ishihara, Yuji Sato, Noboru Kitagawa, Momoe Nakatsu*, Kana Takeda, Takuya Kakuda, Mari Takayama, Kensuke Tsubakida
    Purpose: We aimed to clarify the effect of different measurement sites on the retention of maxillary complete dentures and to determine the optimal site and loading method for evaluating retention. The factors associated with mandibular complete denture retention are unclear; thus, a retention evaluation method has not been established. We investigated measurement methods and the optimal site by using a model to establish a retention measurement method for mandibular complete dentures.
    Method: We manufactured complete resin dentures, based on normal methods used for edentulous mandibular models. We fabricated a covering splint to measure the denture surface. We set four points (A–D) for the measurement sites. We measured retention after filling the space between the denture mucosal surface and the model with four types of intervening saliva.
    Results: All four types of intervening saliva could be measured only when measuring site A traction and the downward pressure on the fenestrations. Both conditions had a strong positive correlation (r = 0.94, P<.01). At site A, there was no significant difference in the measurement values with pressure exerted at45°and at 23°, which indicated a positive correlation (r = 0.73, P<.01).
    Conclusion: Mandibular complete denture retention can be measured by applying oblique downward pressure on the occlusal plane at the mandibular central incisor midpoint.
    Kostas Zygogiannis*, Irene HA Aartman, AzinParsa, Paul F. van der Stelt, and Daniel Wismeijer
    Objectives: We investigated the level of agreement amongst clinicians on the size of the implants planned to retain a two-implant mandibular overdenture based on panoramic radiographs and on Cone Beam Compute Tomography (CBCT) scans as well as their confidence in accurately locating various anatomical landmarks in the anterior mandible.
    Materials and methods: To select the appropriate diameter and length of implants planned to retain an overdenture, panoramic radiographs and the associated putty replicas of the edentulous mandibles of 15 patients were given to a group of 20 dentists and radiologists. The assessors were also asked how accurately they could locate seven anatomical landmarks in the anterior mandible using a 5-point Likert scale. One week later, the same exercises were performed on the basis of the information provided by CBCT scans.
    Results: The agreement between the selected implant length and diameter based on the panoramic radiographs and on the CBCT scans was poor. The length differed in approximately 50% of the cases (Cohen's kappa = 0.26), and the diameter in 30% of the cases (Cohen's kappa = 0.07 and 0.09). The assessors' confidence in accurately locating anatomical structures, such as the incisive canal was significantly higher when CBCT scans were available (p<0.001).
    Conclusions: Preoperative selection of the appropriate implant size for an overdenture may be enhanced by examining cross-sectional images. Based on the additional information provided by CBCT scans, narrower and shorter implants were selected by the clinicians. The availability of CBCT scans seemed to improve the visualization of important anatomical landmarks in the anterior mandible.
    Mounir Doumit*, Mohammad Omar Machmouchi, and Hicham Diab
    Fluoride (F) therapy is the delivery of fluoride to teeth, either topically or systematically, to protect them from dental caries. Extensive evidence proved that fluoride toothpastes and water fluoridation reduce dental caries. Fluoride and water fluoridation in dentistry were classified as one of the 10 most important public health measures of the 20th century. This article briefly addresses the fluoride’s issue in dentistry, its use and dosage, and possible hazards due to excess fluoride.
    Short Communication
    Wagner Baseggio*, Flavia Pardo Salata Nahsan, Cassiana Koch Scotti, Eduardo Batista Franco, and Denise Cesar de Oliveira Davidoff
    The occlusal surface morphology is characterized by deep and retentive pits and fissures which naturally collaborate to formdental paque deposits and increase the difficulty of cleaning, favoring the development of caries desease. With compreension that the carious lesion must be avoided or have their progression delayed, the professional could use more conservative treatments for the occlusal surfaces. During the daily clinical work, several cases of deciduous or permanent molars, mostly those at the eruption stage, carriers of the disease activity in variable complexity levels or in serious risk of developing a carious lesion. The aim of this study is to present a guideline for the management of the occlusal surfaces with preventive therapy.
    Case Report
    Arthur M. Kemoli*
    Dental fluorosis is a major dental concern in many areas in the world with its associated aesthetic and occlusal problems due to cracking of the affected teeth. The present case report details a 14 year-old girl, with moderate fluorosis and who sought treatment of the discolouration associated with the fluorosis from a herbalist. At the end of the treatment, her aesthetics was not just poorer, but there was also severe dental sensitivity emanating from her upper anterior teeth. As a result, she sought treatment at a local dental clinic, where the damage was successfully repaired with good aesthetic results and complete elimination of dental sensitivity. The case study amplifies the imperative need for oral health education to the general population, and in particular, increased knowledge on aetiology, consequences and proper managment of dental fluorosis.
    Special Issue on Oral health of children with special health care needs (SHCN)
    Editorial
    Mawlood Kowash*
    Children with special health care needs (SHCN) are individuals with a medical, physical, psychological and/or social condition that requires individualization of dental treatment. They are one of the neediest, yet most underserved groups of dental patients.
    Review Article
    Dina Mansoor, Manal Al Halabi, and Mawlood Kowash*
    Globally 1 in every 68 child is diagnosed with Autism. Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) or Autism is a group of neurodevelopmental disorders, affecting the normal development and functioning of the brain in three core domains; reciprocal social interactions, verbal and non-verbal communication and the presence of restricted or repetitive behaviors. Typically it appears in the first three years of life and affects males four times more than females but females are more likely to show more signs of mental retardation. Other medical problems can co-exist along with Autism such as psychiatric illnesses, epilepsy; sleep disturbances, feeding problems, gastrointestinal problems and voiding problems. Autism cannot be cured, but the earlier the intervention the better the results. Medications, therapies and behavioral interventions can only alleviate Autism related symptoms and cause substantial improvement. Autism characteristics can have an impact on three different perspectives of dental care, which are oral care at home, oral care at the dentist and access to oral care. This paper aims to review and discuss the literature on the general and oral characteristics of children with Autism Spectrum Disorder in order to help the dental practitioners as well as the medical professionals in providing them with better oral and health services.
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