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  • ISSN: 2333-7133
    Early Online
    Volume 5, Issue 1
    Short Communication
    Wagner Baseggio*, Flavia Pardo Salata Nahsan, Cassiana Koch Scotti, Eduardo Batista Franco, and Denise Cesar de Oliveira Davidoff
    The occlusal surface morphology is characterized by deep and retentive pits and fissures which naturally collaborate to formdental paque deposits and increase the difficulty of cleaning, favoring the development of caries desease. With compreension that the carious lesion must be avoided or have their progression delayed, the professional could use more conservative treatments for the occlusal surfaces. During the daily clinical work, several cases of deciduous or permanent molars, mostly those at the eruption stage, carriers of the disease activity in variable complexity levels or in serious risk of developing a carious lesion. The aim of this study is to present a guideline for the management of the occlusal surfaces with preventive therapy.
    Case Report
    Arthur M. Kemoli*
    Dental fluorosis is a major dental concern in many areas in the world with its associated aesthetic and occlusal problems due to cracking of the affected teeth. The present case report details a 14 year-old girl, with moderate fluorosis and who sought treatment of the discolouration associated with the fluorosis from a herbalist. At the end of the treatment, her aesthetics was not just poorer, but there was also severe dental sensitivity emanating from her upper anterior teeth. As a result, she sought treatment at a local dental clinic, where the damage was successfully repaired with good aesthetic results and complete elimination of dental sensitivity. The case study amplifies the imperative need for oral health education to the general population, and in particular, increased knowledge on aetiology, consequences and proper managment of dental fluorosis.
    Short Note
    Pavankumar J. Vibhute*
    Premature loss of deciduous tooth results in drifting of adjacent teeth in to edentulous space along with arch length reduction, leading to malocclusion. The preservation of arch length in all stages of dentition is important for the normal development of occlusion.
    Review Article
    Mohammed M Al Moaleem*, Ismail A Dorout, El Fatih I Elamin, Khurshid A Mattoo, Nabiel AL Ghazali
    Microbiological composition in the oral cavity is affected by components and shape of restorative materials used. Consequently, such composition may affect oral health and restorative materials. Secondary caries form in teeth that are partly restored with restorative materials. This condition is a common dental disease caused by bacterial biofilms and with unknown causes. Caries are related to the type of restoration material used. In relation to biomaterials, several factors, such as surface roughness, surface energy, and chemical composition, affect Microbiota composition and biofilm formation. Ceramic and dental alloys have resulted in fewer caries formation, whereas composites cause more secondary caries than amalgam or glass ionomers. Khat chewing in the Arabian Peninsula is associated with a range of orodental problems. This paper provides an overview of scientific literature regarding the association among properties and performances of different restorative materials and oral biofilm formation in the presence of khat. PubMed literatures published until June 2016 were researched using the following keywords: ceramic, alloy, denture materials, composite resin, amalgam, biofilm, khat. Bibliographies of available previous reviews and their cross references were manually searched.
    Short Note
    Pavankumar J. Vibhute*
    Orthodontic treatment often involves chairside joining hook on archwires with free hand soldering. Hooks are required on archwire for the purpose of application of retraction forces with closed coil springs or with elastomeric chain. Soldered hooks are prefered on archwire for intermaxillary fixation in orthognathic surgeries. Brass wire hooks are often soldered on archwire with free hand soldering. Crimpable hooks although convenient to use, but dependon pure mechanical lock and have a disadvantage of slippage along the archwire over a time, so soldering brass wire hooks to archwire is still practiced classicaly. Precise position & angulation of J-hook is very important without loosing properties of stainless steel archwire during soldering because undesirable annealing. Stabilizing archwire and precision in joining hook during free hand soldering has been tedious, especialy for beginers. Use of Vibhute Orthodontic Soldering Jig and press stand is explained here with illustartions.This apparatus is found to be very convenient chairside to solder hooks to the archwire.
    Review Article
    Ronaldo Silva Cruz, Victor Eduardo de Souza Batista, Cleidiel Aparecido Araujo Lemos, Hiskell Francine Fernandes Oliveira, and Fellippo RamosVerri*
    Denture base fractures are a common problem in diary clinics. This article describes a simple technique to make cast metal reinforcement with Co-Cr dental alloy to be incorporated inner denture base maintaining the esthetic. This technique represents a rehabilitation option to help clinicians saving time for treatment that involves recurrent fractures of denture base without spend of time with recurrent appointments. This technique decreases patient dissatisfaction providing better resistance and stability for complete dentures.
    Maatouk Fethi*, Ayadi Abdessslem Ines, Masmoudi Fatma, Chemli Med Ali, and Ghedira Hichem
    Many studies reported the importance of the deciduous dentition and its rich pathology. A close relationship was also noted between occlusion in deciduous and in permanent dentitions. A literature review reported that the flush terminal plane relationship was accepted as the norm in the complete deciduous dentition, but some authors did not support this view.
    Aim: The purpose of this study conducted in Tunisian preschoolers was to assess the oral health and the occlusal patterns in primary dentition.
    Material and methods: The study consisted of a cross sectional survey covering 392 preschool children; 197 females (50.3%) and 195 males (49.7%) aged from 3 to 5 years in the kindergarten of Moknine (Tunisia). Oral examination was carried out in order to assess the oral health status and the occlusion characteristics.
    Results: Dental caries affected 140 children (35.7%). A mean dmft of 1.12 1.97 was noted with 426 decayed teeth (mean 1.10 1.0), five-missed (mean 0.01 0.8) and 9 filled (mean 0.01 0.05); the Significant Caries Index value (SiC) was about 5.57 2.26 dmft. Among 326 children in deciduous dentition, 68.7% presented spaced teeth. The dental eruption was earlier in girls. The prevalence of malocclusion was about 24.7% and the flush plane was the most frequent type of terminal molar relationship in deciduous dentition, followed by the mesial step than the distal step with 81%, 15% and 4% respectively.
    Conclusion: The present paper gave an outline onto oral health status and occlusal patterns in Tunisian preschool children. The spaced dentition seemed more frequent than closed dentition and the flush plane was the most frequent type of terminal molar relationship in deciduous dentition.
    Research Article
    Masae Ishihara*, Yuji Sato, Noboru Kitagawa, and Momoe Nakatsu
    Purpose: Various aspects of the retention of mandibular complete dentures are unclear, as no evaluation method has been established to date. This study aimed to clarify the effect of suitable mouth opening, the shape of the residual ridge, and the form of the denture on retention when measuring retention of mandibular complete dentures.
    Methods: The subjects were 37 individuals wearing mandibular complete dentures. The central incisor was loaded 45 downward toward the occlusal plane. The force needed to dislodge the denture was measured using a digital force gauge. The size of the mouth opening was defined as 1, 2, and 3 cm, and was measured four times. Retention forces were compared based on the shape of the molar residual ridge and the relative position of the anterior residual ridge crest.
    Results: As the size of the mouth opening increased, the retention decreased (P<.05). The variation index was the lowest when the mouth was opened to 1 cm. Denture retention increased as the viscosity of the oral moisturizer increased (P<.05). Retention decreased when the residual ridge in the anterior mandibular region was positioned relatively backward (r = -0.608, P<.01). There was a significant relationship between the height of the residual ridge in the molar region and denture retention.
    Conclusions: As the viscosity of the oral moisturizer increased, denture retention increased. The size of mouth opening needs to be defined when measuring retention. The size of mouth opening is stable at 1 cm; therefore, this is the optimal size. Retention was associated with the height of the molar region residual ridge and the relative position of the crest of the anterior residual ridge.
    Kensuke Tsubakida*, Yuuji Sato, Noboru Kitagawa, Momoe Nakatsu, Takeda Kana, Kakuda Takuya, Takayama Mari, and Ishihara Masae
    No previous study has clarified the experience of using adhesives/moisturizers by comparing them to subjective evaluations of patient satisfaction.
    In an ultra-aged society, most elderly individuals experience many oral problems. Particularly, xerostomia and mal adaptation to dentures may lead to poor retention of maxillary complete dentures. Many patients use denture adhesives; however, the effects of these adhesives on denture cleaning and denture function are not well understood in many cases. Therefore, oral moisturizers are often recommended instead of denture adhesives. The purpose of this study was to clarify the selection criteria for denture adhesives or oral moisturizers in wearers of maxillary complete dentures.
    Twenty-five maxillary edentulous subjects were enrolled in this study. A denture adhesive and three oral moisturizers (liquid, gel, and spray) were administered for 3 days each. Patients were surveyed after each treatment ("the after-use questionnaire") and at the end of the study ("the final questionnaire").
    In the after-use questionnaire, the denture adhesive was evaluated highly for "stability," "chewing," "fitting," and "retention" (P <0.05). On the final questionnaire, the denture adhesive was selected by 14 and the oral moisturizers by 11 of 25 subjects. Patients who selected the denture adhesive evaluated its "stability" and lack of an "uncomfortable feeling" highly; patients who selected the oral moisturizers evaluated the lack of a "dry feeling" highly (P <0.05).
    These results suggest that "stability," an "uncomfortable feeling," and a "dry feeling" were the driving criteria in choosing either the denture adhesive or an oral moisturizer.
    Ambarkova Vesna*
    The optimal amount of fluoride in drinking water is just one of the factors that positively influence the occurrence of dental caries and has an effect on the oral health of the population of the Republic of Macedonia. The correlation existing between dental fluorosis and fluorine concentration in water is based on average water consumption, a condition that depends directly from air temperature and local climate conditions. The climate in the Republic of Macedonia is characterized by the interweaving of Mediterranean and continental influences, and on very specific way the mild Mediterranean climate collide with the harsh continental climate. Mediterranean influences create a dry and hot summer, and continental influences cold and wet winter.
    The average annual temperature in our country is 11, 5C. The warmest month of the year is July, with an average air temperature of 22, 2C, while the coldest is January with an average temperature of 0, 3C.
    Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia expand between 40 50 and 42 20 north geographic latitude and 20 27 and 23 05 east geographic length. To provide protection against dental caries, we need to determine the optimal concentration of fluoride in drinking water using the mean annual air temperature. The majority of the population in the Republic of Macedonia used is supplied by drinking water from groundwater, from carbonates springs.
    Special Issue on Oral health of children with special health care needs (SHCN)
    Editorial
    Kowash M*
    Children with special health care needs (SHCN) are individuals with a medical, physical, psychological and/or social condition that requires individualization of dental treatment. They are one of the neediest, yet most underserved groups of dental patients.
    Review Article
    Dina Mansoor, Manal Al Halabi, and Kowash M*
    Globally 1 in every 68 child is diagnosed with Autism. Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) or Autism is a group of neurodevelopmental disorders, affecting the normal development and functioning of the brain in three core domains; reciprocal social interactions, verbal and non-verbal communication and the presence of restricted or repetitive behaviors. Typically it appears in the first three years of life and affects males four times more than females but females are more likely to show more signs of mental retardation. Other medical problems can co-exist along with Autism such as psychiatric illnesses, epilepsy; sleep disturbances, feeding problems, gastrointestinal problems and voiding problems. Autism cannot be cured, but the earlier the intervention the better the results. Medications, therapies and behavioral interventions can only alleviate Autism related symptoms and cause substantial improvement. Autism characteristics can have an impact on three different perspectives of dental care, which are oral care at home, oral care at the dentist and access to oral care. This paper aims to review and discuss the literature on the general and oral characteristics of children with Autism Spectrum Disorder in order to help the dental practitioners as well as the medical professionals in providing them with better oral and health services.
    Batool Ghaith, Manal Al Halabi, and Mawlood Kowash*
    A literature search was conducted to identify the key oral and dental manifestations of DS. These findings are discussed and used to suggest recommendations for treatment planning in DS patients for the practicing dental practitioner and also to help other medical professionals in understanding the oral health status of DS patients and the importance of liaison with dental professionals.
    Haifa Alhashmi, Mawlood Kowash*, and Manal Al Halabi
    Cerebral palsy (CP) is a group of neuromuscular disorders that affects the development of movement and posture, causing activity limitations. CP is classified into three main groups: spastic, dyskinetic and ataxic. Population-based studies from around the world report estimates of CP prevalence ranging from 1.5 to more than 4 per 1,000 live births. The commonest cause of CP remains unknown in 50% of the cases; prematurity remains the common asterisk factor. CP children suffer from numerous problems and potential disabilities such as mental retardation, epilepsy, feeding difficulties, and ophthalmologic and hearing impairments. This paper reviews and critically discusses the definition, epidemiology, aetiology, classifications, treatments and associated manifestation and complications of CP.
    Haifa Alhashmi, Mawlood Kowash*, and Manal Al Halabi
    Cerebral palsy (CP) is a group of neuromuscular disorders that affects the development of movement and posture, causing activity limitations. CP is classified into three main groups: spastic, dyskinetic and ataxic. Population-based studies from around the world report estimates of CP prevalence ranging from 1.5 to more than 4 per 1,000 live births. CP children suffer from numerous problems and potential disabilities such as mental retardation, epilepsy, feeding difficulties, and ophthalmologic and hearing impairments. Intra orally, Patients with cerebral palsy are reported to have several oral health problems such as poor oral hygiene, bruxism, drooling, traumatic dental injuries, and malocclusion.
    A literature search was conducted to identify the key oral and dental manifestations of CP. These findings are discussed and utilized to suggest recommendations for treatment planning in CP patients for the dental practitioner. The findings might also help other medical professionals in understanding the oral health status of CP patients and the importance of liaison with dental professionals.
    Mawlood Kowash*
    The management of children with special health care needs (SHCN) creates hesitation and anxiety among health professionals including dentists because it requires specialized knowledge acquired through special training, increased awareness, accommodative measures and resources. A literature search was conducted to identify updated and evidence-based recommendations and dental management options available for children with SHCN. These recommendations will assist dentists in determining the most appropriate dental management and also help other medical professionals in understanding the need to maintain optimaloral health for children with SHCN and the importance of liaison with dental professionals.
    Shaikha Al Raeesi, Mawlood Kowash*, and Manal Al Halabi
    Thalassemia is one of the most common inherited haemoglobinopathies characterized by either a partial or a complete suppression in the production of normal haemoglobin as a result of defective synthesis of one or more of the globins chains. Thalassemia is the most widely distributed genetic disorder. Approximately 5 % of the worlds population was found to have a globin variant, with only 1.7 % having an alpha or beta thalassemia trait. The Mediterranean region, the Middle East, the Indian subcontinent and Far East Asia show the highest rates of prevalence of beta thalassemia. Beta thalassemia is considered to be a major public health issue, as well as a life threating condition characterized by severe anaemia, hepatosplenomegaly, growth retardation, endocrine dysfunction, cardiac failure and skeletal changes.
    Shaikha Al Raeesi, Mawlood Kowash*, and Manal Al Halabi
    Thalassaemia, one of the most common genetic disorders, often causes serious medical, social, and psychological problems. Beta thalassaemia major is a life-threatening disorder that presents with a vast variability in the systemic signs and symptoms. In addition, orofacial and dental tissues are also affected. The common orofacial features among thalassaemic patients include: frontal bossing, skeletal overgrowth with characteristic appearances known as chipmunk faces, upper lip retraction, protrusion of pre maxilla bone associated with alveolar enlargement that causes malocclusion in the dentition with the clinical appearance of protrusion, flaring, spacing of anterior teeth and anterior open bite. The oral mucosa appears pale or a lemon yellow colour due to deposition of bilirubin pigmentation and anaemia. Sometimes the gingival colour tends to be dark, caused by high ferritin level in the blood.
    Current reports show a significant improvement in thalassaemia major patients survival rates. With increased life expectancy, the need for improved oral healthcare is very important to ensure a high quality of life for this patient population.
    This paper reviews the literatures and discusses briefly the dento-facial manifestations, radiographic features, dental caries, periodontal and soft tissue conditions related to beta thalassaemia major as well as dental management and considerations of thalassaemia patients.
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