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  • ISSN: 2333-7133
    Early Online
    Volume 5, Issue 1
    Short Communication
    Wagner Baseggio*, Flavia Pardo Salata Nahsan, Cassiana Koch Scotti, Eduardo Batista Franco, and Denise Cesar de Oliveira Davidoff
    The occlusal surface morphology is characterized by deep and retentive pits and fissures which naturally collaborate to formdental paque deposits and increase the difficulty of cleaning, favoring the development of caries desease. With compreension that the carious lesion must be avoided or have their progression delayed, the professional could use more conservative treatments for the occlusal surfaces. During the daily clinical work, several cases of deciduous or permanent molars, mostly those at the eruption stage, carriers of the disease activity in variable complexity levels or in serious risk of developing a carious lesion. The aim of this study is to present a guideline for the management of the occlusal surfaces with preventive therapy.
    Case Report
    Arthur M. Kemoli*
    Dental fluorosis is a major dental concern in many areas in the world with its associated aesthetic and occlusal problems due to cracking of the affected teeth. The present case report details a 14 year-old girl, with moderate fluorosis and who sought treatment of the discolouration associated with the fluorosis from a herbalist. At the end of the treatment, her aesthetics was not just poorer, but there was also severe dental sensitivity emanating from her upper anterior teeth. As a result, she sought treatment at a local dental clinic, where the damage was successfully repaired with good aesthetic results and complete elimination of dental sensitivity. The case study amplifies the imperative need for oral health education to the general population, and in particular, increased knowledge on aetiology, consequences and proper managment of dental fluorosis.
    Special Issue on Oral health of children with special health care needs (SHCN)
    Editorial
    Mawlood Kowash*
    Children with special health care needs (SHCN) are individuals with a medical, physical, psychological and/or social condition that requires individualization of dental treatment. They are one of the neediest, yet most underserved groups of dental patients.
    Review Article
    Dina Mansoor, Manal Al Halabi, and Mawlood Kowash*
    Globally 1 in every 68 child is diagnosed with Autism. Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) or Autism is a group of neurodevelopmental disorders, affecting the normal development and functioning of the brain in three core domains; reciprocal social interactions, verbal and non-verbal communication and the presence of restricted or repetitive behaviors. Typically it appears in the first three years of life and affects males four times more than females but females are more likely to show more signs of mental retardation. Other medical problems can co-exist along with Autism such as psychiatric illnesses, epilepsy; sleep disturbances, feeding problems, gastrointestinal problems and voiding problems. Autism cannot be cured, but the earlier the intervention the better the results. Medications, therapies and behavioral interventions can only alleviate Autism related symptoms and cause substantial improvement. Autism characteristics can have an impact on three different perspectives of dental care, which are oral care at home, oral care at the dentist and access to oral care. This paper aims to review and discuss the literature on the general and oral characteristics of children with Autism Spectrum Disorder in order to help the dental practitioners as well as the medical professionals in providing them with better oral and health services.
    Batool Ghaith, Manal Al Halabi, and Mawlood Kowash*
    A literature search was conducted to identify the key oral and dental manifestations of DS. These findings are discussed and used to suggest recommendations for treatment planning in DS patients for the practicing dental practitioner and also to help other medical professionals in understanding the oral health status of DS patients and the importance of liaison with dental professionals.
    Haifa Alhashmi, Mawlood Kowash*, and Manal Al Halabi
    Cerebral palsy (CP) is a group of neuromuscular disorders that affects the development of movement and posture, causing activity limitations. CP is classified into three main groups: spastic, dyskinetic and ataxic. Population-based studies from around the world report estimates of CP prevalence ranging from 1.5 to more than 4 per 1,000 live births. The commonest cause of CP remains unknown in 50% of the cases; prematurity remains the common asterisk factor. CP children suffer from numerous problems and potential disabilities such as mental retardation, epilepsy, feeding difficulties, and ophthalmologic and hearing impairments. This paper reviews and critically discusses the definition, epidemiology, aetiology, classifications, treatments and associated manifestation and complications of CP.
    Haifa Alhashmi*, Mawlood Kowash, and Manal Al Halabi
    Cerebral palsy (CP) is a group of neuromuscular disorders that affects the development of movement and posture, causing activity limitations. CP is classified into three main groups: spastic, dyskinetic and ataxic. Population-based studies from around the world report estimates of CP prevalence ranging from 1.5 to more than 4 per 1,000 live births. CP children suffer from numerous problems and potential disabilities such as mental retardation, epilepsy, feeding difficulties, and ophthalmologic and hearing impairments. Intra orally, Patients with cerebral palsy are reported to have several oral health problems such as poor oral hygiene, bruxism, drooling, traumatic dental injuries, and malocclusion.
    A literature search was conducted to identify the key oral and dental manifestations of CP. These findings are discussed and utilized to suggest recommendations for treatment planning in CP patients for the dental practitioner. The findings might also help other medical professionals in understanding the oral health status of CP patients and the importance of liaison with dental professionals.
    Mawlood B. Kowash*
    The management of children with special health care needs (SHCN) creates hesitation and anxiety among health professionals including dentists because it requires specialized knowledge acquired through special training, increased awareness, accommodative measures and resources. A literature search was conducted to identify updated and evidence-based recommendations and dental management options available for children with SHCN. These recommendations will assist dentists in determining the most appropriate dental management and also help other medical professionals in understanding the need to maintain optimaloral health for children with SHCN and the importance of liaison with dental professionals.
    Shaikha Al Raeesi, Mawlood Kowash*, and Manal Al Halabi
    Thalassemia is one of the most common inherited haemoglobinopathies characterized by either a partial or a complete suppression in the production of normal haemoglobin as a result of defective synthesis of one or more of the globins chains. Thalassemia is the most widely distributed genetic disorder. Approximately 5 % of the worlds population was found to have a globin variant, with only 1.7 % having an alpha or beta thalassemia trait. The Mediterranean region, the Middle East, the Indian subcontinent and Far East Asia show the highest rates of prevalence of beta thalassemia. Beta thalassemia is considered to be a major public health issue, as well as a life threating condition characterized by severe anaemia, hepatosplenomegaly, growth retardation, endocrine dysfunction, cardiac failure and skeletal changes.
    Shaikha Al Raeesi, Mawlood Kowash*, and Manal Al Halabi
    Thalassaemia, one of the most common genetic disorders, often causes serious medical, social, and psychological problems. Beta thalassaemia major is a life-threatening disorder that presents with a vast variability in the systemic signs and symptoms. In addition, orofacial and dental tissues are also affected. The common orofacial features among thalassaemic patients include: frontal bossing, skeletal overgrowth with characteristic appearances known as chipmunk faces, upper lip retraction, protrusion of pre maxilla bone associated with alveolar enlargement that causes malocclusion in the dentition with the clinical appearance of protrusion, flaring, spacing of anterior teeth and anterior open bite. The oral mucosa appears pale or a lemon yellow colour due to deposition of bilirubin pigmentation and anaemia. Sometimes the gingival colour tends to be dark, caused by high ferritin level in the blood.
    Current reports show a significant improvement in thalassaemia major patients survival rates. With increased life expectancy, the need for improved oral healthcare is very important to ensure a high quality of life for this patient population.
    This paper reviews the literatures and discusses briefly the dento-facial manifestations, radiographic features, dental caries, periodontal and soft tissue conditions related to beta thalassaemia major as well as dental management and considerations of thalassaemia patients.
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