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  • ISSN: 2379-089X
    Volume 4, Issue 4
    Review Article
    Narendra Kala and Scott G. Turner*
    Malignant gliomas are the most common type of primary malignant brain tumors in adults. They have a grave prognosis that is attributed to their high proliferative index and increased vascular proliferation. The latter is primarily mediated by the secretion of Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor (VEGF) by tumor cells, which leads to the development of an increased number of abnormal blood vessels in and around the tumor. There has been evidence of radiographic response with clinical improvement by targeting this signaling pathway using VEGF/VEGF receptor inhibitors, primarily bevacizumab (BEV), a monoclonal antibody against VEGF, which has been approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for treatment of recurrent gliomas. Though it extends progression-free survival (PFS) and decreases the reliance on steroids, BEV has not been shown to confer a survival benefit in patients with malignant glioma. We have reviewed the available literature to demonstrate the effectiveness and drawbacks of BEV therapy reinforcing the need for research into newer, better-tolerated and more effective modalities.
    Asad Ullah and Nira Ben-Jonathan*
    Cisplatin is an effective anti-cancer drug which has been successfully utilized in the treatment of many cancer types. However, cisplatin has shown only limited efficacy in the majority of breast tumors, and is not generally included as a monotherapy in this disease. The potential role of hormones in chemoresistance in breast cancer has received little attention. This review focuses on two classes of hormones: a) protein hormones that include prolactin, growth hormone and leptin, all of which act via class 1 cytokine receptors and activate the Jak2/stat signaling pathway, and b) steroid hormones that include estrogens, xenoestrogens, and glucocorticoids, which generally act via ligand-regulated nuclear receptors. Accumulating evidence indicate that each of these hormone antagonizes cisplatin cytotoxicity in breast cancer cells by a variety of mechanisms. The implications of chemoresistance by these hormones to patients with hormone-sensitive breast cancer, and the potential benefits of increasing chemosensitivity by using anti-hormone treatment regimens are discussed.
    Short Communication
    Elsa Galbis, M-Violante de-Paz, Nieves Iglesias, Ricardo Lucas, and Juan A. Galbis*
    Micelles are excellent devices to be used as controlled drug delivery systems since they exhibit the ability to protect the drug or encapsulated substance from the routes of degradation until they reach the site of action: moreover, they can pass through biological barriers and reach intracellular compartments. In addition, when a drug is administered and released from the dosage form, the kinetic behavior of the drug depends largely on their chemical structure. However, when the drug is immersed at the core of a NP, the physicochemical properties that actually affect the distribution of the drug in the body are those from the latter. As a result, this approach controls drug release, diminishing side effects and increasing therapeutic rates. In the present work novel smart micelles have been prepared and tested as drug delivery systems.
    Mini Review
    LaShondra Manning and LaVelle Hendricks*
    A new trend for teenagers is smoking coffee. The term “bean head” has been coined to denote people who partake in 'smoking coffee' and using/creating 'coffee joints' or 'caffeine sticks.' Coffee, like other household items are usually used because of its accessibility and categorization as a legal substance. There are many side effects to smoking coffee, but that seems to be secondary to the 'high' that is gained. Recently, smoking coffee has earned media and national attention with a Las Vegas ABC affiliate being the first to report on the topic. Many criticize the trend and doubt the validity of its existence, but is something that must be paid attention to due to the vulnerability and susceptibility of today's teenagers. Cognitive behavior is suggested as a therapeutic modality to discover the underlying reason for teenagers smoking coffee.
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