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  • ISSN: 2333-6692
    Current Issue
    January-March 2014
    Volume 2, Issue 1
    Editorial
    Fei Teng and Jun Liang*
    We are thankful to Dr. Masayoshi Yamaguchi for his keen interest in our previous study in the field of Obesity and Diabetic genetic-diet interactions research.
    Research Article
    Akie Hirata1*, Keizo Ohnaka2, Maya Tanaka1, Zhenjie Wang1, Makiko Morita1, Kengo Toyomura1, Suminori Kono1 and Ryoichi Takayanagi3
    Abstract:
    Background: Bilirubin is a potent anti-oxidant, and has been shown to be inversely related to diabetes mellitus, cardiovascular diseases, and stroke. Few studies have reported the relation of specific foods to serum bilirubin, but none has examined the association between dietary patterns and bilirubin. We investigated the relation between dietary patterns and serum bilirubin in Japanese men and women.
    Methods: The study subjects were men and women aged 49 to 76 years who participated in the baseline survey of a cohort study of lifestyle-related diseases between February 2004 and August 2007. The dietary patterns were derived from principal component analysis of the intakes of 31 foods and food groups ascertained by the food-frequency questionnaire. Analysis of covariance was used to estimate geometric means of serum bilirubin according to quintiles of the dietary pattern scores with adjustment for potential confounding factors.
    Results: Only one dietary pattern was distinguishable, and the dietary pattern was characterized by high intakes of vegetables and fruit. The dietary pattern was not related to serum bilirubin concentrations in men, and showed an inverse association with bilirubin in women (trend P = 0.04).
    Conclusions: A dietary pattern represented by high intakes of vegetables and fruit was inversely associated with serum bilirubin in women, but not in men.
    Radostina Vlaeva Cherneva1*, Ognian Borisov Georgiev1, Daniela Stoichkova Petrova1, Emil Ivanov Manov2 and Julia Ivanova Petrova3
    Abstract:
    Background: Resistin is a novel adipokine that has been reported as an independent predictor for hypertension and a marker for insulinresistance in the general population. Its rolein patients with obstructive sleep apnea, has not been investigated yet.
    Aim: To explore the role of resistinas a marker of insulin resistanceand nighttime blood pressure abnormalities in obstructive sleep apnea patients.
    Materials and methods: A total of 77hypertensive patients with newly diagnosed obstructive sleep apnea have been investigated.Patients were divided into three groups in regards to their glucose tolerance and the association between resistin and markers of insulin resistancewas analysed. In non-diabetic OSA patients ABPM was additionally performed. The relation between resistin and nocturnal hypertension was analysed.
    Results: Resistin plasma levels were higher in patients with diabetes (6,12 ±5,93ng/ml), compared to those withIGT (3,85±2,81ng/ml, p-0,021) and NGM (3.97±2.98,p***-0,038). Resistin did not differ between patients with IGT andNGM (p-0,843). In OSA patients with BMI>40 resistin plasma levels did not correlate to the clinical parameters, associated with adiposity.They were higher in subjects with nocturnal hypertension in comparison to those with normal blood pressure - (7.81±4.43 vs. 4.90±2.92 ng/mL).
    Conclusions: Resistsin plasma levels in OSA patients with BMI>40 may be used in amultipanel of markers to discern patients with diabetes from those with IGT. Hyperresistinemia could contribute to thepathogenesis of nocturnal hypertension in non-diabetic obstructive sleep apnea patients.
    Farida Chentli1*, Said Azzoug1, Katia Daffeur1, Hakim Mendil1 and Djamila Meskine2
    Abstract:
    Gonadal abnormalities (GA) in women with prolactinomas (P) are well described. But, large series concerning males are lacking. Our aim was to analyze GA in 60 men with P.
    Material/methods: median age=34+/-13years, median prolactin (PRL) =2569ng/ml. 55 were macroadenomas (height>1cm) with pituitary insufficiency (=2axes) in 27. We took into account patients' complaints and clinical examination. Hormonal data were based on PRL, total testosterone (TT), follicle stimulating hormone (FSH), and luteinizing hormone (LH) with respective normal values: 5-20ng/ml, 3-9ng/ml, 1-9mUI/ml, and 1-12mUI/ml. 16 had LHRH test (100mcg). The sperm count was analyzed in 9 cases. Student's t-test was used to compare gonadotropins of 2Groups:G1=normal TT and G2=low TT, with p <0.05.
    Results: delayed puberty=6 (10%). In the remaining group, decreased libido=75%, and erectile dysfunction=79.6%. Facial and body hair growth, and testicular volume were reduced in respectively 44.5% and 35%. Galactorrhea was observed in 22% and gynecomastia in 14%. Low TT (<3ng/ml) =74%. FSH was normal-low except in one patient (FSH=15). LH was low in 23%. LHRH test showed normal response for FSH, LH response was insufficient in 38%. Comparison between groups showed FSH/LH of G1 were significantly higher than the ones of G2 (respectively: 3.23 ± 1.64mu/ml vs 2.21 ± 1.58mu/ml, p<0.001, and 3.46 ± 1.43mu/ml vs 2.07 ± 1.48 p<0.001). For the sperm count, it was normal in 5 cases (4 with low TT), 4 had oligospermia and/or astheno-teratospermia (one with high FSH).
    Conclusion: 79% complained of gonadal dysfunction. Except in one case low TT=75% is due to hypothalamic-pituitary damage.
    Beatriz Minghelli1*, Carla Nunes2 and Raul Oliveira3
    Abstract:
    Introduction: Overweight and obesity in adolescents are major public health problems with particular interest because of their potential association with risk factors for development of diseases. The study aimed to determine the prevalence of overweight and obesity in adolescents in southern Portugal and investigate the association with risk factors for development of cardiovascular, respiratory and musculoskeletal diseases.
    Materials and methods: The sample consisted of 966 adolescents aged 10 to 16 years. The calculation of Body Mass Index (BMI), evaluation of blood glucose, total cholesterol and triglycerides, blood pressure, spirometry and application of Low back pain (LBP) questionnaire were performed.
    Results: 178 (18.4%) adolescents were overweight and 52 (5.4%) obese. 2 (0.2%) students presented hyperglycemia, 7 (0.8%) elevated total cholesterol and 6 (1.4%) showed high levels of triglycerides. The presence of LBP in the past year was reported by 456 (47.2%) students. None of the above variables revealed significantly associated with overweight and obesity. The presence of high pressure was observed in 200 (20.7%) individuals and hypertension in 158 (16.4%) adolescents. Adolescents with overweight and obesity have 2.3 times more likely to go on to developed signs of pre-hypertension and hypertension. 559 (57.9%) students had restrictive respiratory disorders and 23 (2.4%) obstructive disorders, and individuals who were overweight and obese had 0.64 probability of having restrictive respiratory disorders.
    Conclusions: There was a high prevalence of overweight and obesity in Portuguese adolescents and these showed a statistically significant relationship with the development of pre-hypertension and hypertension and restrictive respiratory disorders.
    Koichiro Homma1,2,3*, Yasuhiko Homma3,4, Yutaka Shiina4, Takeshi Kanda2, Hirobumi Tokuyama2, Shu Wakino2, Koichi Hayashi2, Hiroshi Itoh2 and Shingo Hori1
    Abstract:
    Objective: Coronary heart disease (CAD) is the commonest complication in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) under hemodialysis (HD). Coronary risk biomarkers, namely, plasma levels of lipids, apo(lipo)proteins, oxidized (ox)-low-density lipoprotein (LDL), and adiponectin were compared between HD patients and age, sex, and body mass index-matched controls.
    Methods and results: Eighty HD patients and 80 controls were enrolled. Plasma levels of apoproteins were measured with a turbidimetric immunoassay. Ox-LDL and adiponectin were measured by an enzyme-linked immunoassay. Plasma levels of LDL-cholesterol (C), high-density lipoprotein (HDL)-C, apoprotein (apo) B, apo A1, and ox-LDL were lower in HD patients than controls (p < 0.0001). Ratios of LDL-C/ox-LDL were higher in HD subjects than in controls (p < 0.0001). Plasma levels of remnant-like lipoprotein particle cholesterol that is equivalent to triglyceride-rich lipoprotein remnant were higher in HD patients (p < 0.0001). Plasma levels of adiponectin were higher and the abdominal circumference/adiponectin ratio was lower in HD patients than in controls (p < 0.0001).
    Conclusion: Plasma levels of LDL-C, ox-LDL, and adiponectin should not be used as coronary risk biomarkers in HD patients. However, high levels of remnant-like lipoprotein particle cholesterol represent a significant coronary risk in HD patients.
    Short Communication
    Masayasu Yoneda, Mitsunobu Kubota, Mami Shiwa and Shuhei Nakanishi*
    We have been conducting a medical examination of Japanese migrants or their descendants since 1970 in the Hawaii-Los Angeles-Hiroshima study. This is a long-term epidemiological study on Japanese-Americans genetically identical to native Japanese but whose lifestyle has undergone rapid intense westernization. By comparing Japanese-Americans living in Hawaii and Los Angeles in the United States with Japanese living in Hiroshima, Japan, we made several important observations about the effects of environmental changes on the incidence of lifestyle-related diseases and the progression of atherosclerosis. In comparison to native Japanese, Japanese-Americans (1) consumed more animal fat and simple carbohydrates, but less complex carbohydrates; (2) showed greater insulin resistance and more rapid progression of atherosclerosis; (3) had higher prevalence's of diabetes mellitus and metabolic syndrome. Moreover, we recently found that the prevalence of metabolic syndrome among Japanese-Americans who had lived in Japan during their childhood was significantly lower than among those who had never lived in Japan. These results indicate that a Japanese lifestyle might protect against the development of lifestyle-related diseases caused by a westernized lifestyle among Japanese individuals.
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