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  • ISSN: 2333-6455
    Early Online
    Volume 6, Issue 1
    Research Article
    Mitsunori Yanagisawa* and Nao Kawamoto
    Three agar-degrading bacteria, strains TC-1, TC-2, and TC-3, were isolated and characterized to obtain novel bacteria with the ability to utilize various carbohydrates contained in seaweeds and to grow at temperatures of 40C and higher. All isolated strains were identified as Paenibacillus spp. by analyzing their 16S rRNA gene sequences. Their abilities to utilize carbohydrates such as glucose, mannitol, agar, alginate, starch, laminarin, and carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC) were investigated. TC-2 and TC-3 utilized all examined carbohydrates excluding CMC, but TC-1 did not utilize mannitol, alginate, or CMC. Although no strains utilized CMC, we found that they could degrade the carbohydrate. All isolated strains probably have the ability to degrade cellulose because of their abilities to degrade CMC, which is a cellulose derivative. In addition, the maximum growth temperatures of these strains were investigated. TC-1 and TC-3 grew at 40C, which is relatively high compared to the growth temperatures of other agar-degrading bacteria, whereas TC-2 could grow at 45C. We confirmed that TC-2 and TC-3 can utilize various carbohydrates contained in seaweeds and grow at high temperatures, and these strains will be useful for the bioconversion of seaweeds, such as bioethanol production from seaweeds and composting of seaweed waste.
    Hadeel H. Alrubaye*, Saad S. Fakhry, Zahraa A. Jebur, and Farqed Farhan
    Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) are significant to human health due to the production of some antimicrobial substances and ability to inhibit pathogenic bacteria. Furthermore, the bacteria are also used in the production of various food products. The aim of this study was isolation and characterization of Lactobacillus species from dairy products by using biochemical and molecular techniques.
    Twenty-eight (28) strains of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) were isolated from yogurt using MRS broth and agar cultured media. Strains isolated were characterized by biochemical properties. Other characterization like produce antimicrobial substances active against selected pathogens, isolates (NO.11,12,13,19,21 and 23) and antibiotic susceptibility of the isolates suggested those isolates could be used as probiotics for human use. For molecular characterization, Martin-Platero method was used for DNA extraction and purification and for16S rRNA amplification conventional was used. The 16S rRNA gene sequencing analysis identified and phylogenetic tree drawn by the Neighbor-Joining method (Mega 6).The study showed 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis is higher sensitivity to detect bacterial species than the conventional biochemical methods, then these sequence data have been submitted to the GenBank database (https://submit.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov) under accession numbers; MG890339, MG896122, MG847173, MG890341
    Istvan Weyda, Malavika Sinha, Annette Sorensen, Peter S. Lbeck and Birgitte K. Ahring*
    Microbial conversion of biomass into fatty acid-derived advanced biofuels has gained a lot of attention recently. Fatty acids and triglycerides can be used as source materials for the production of biodiesel fuel. Here, we increased internal free fatty acid and triglyceride levels in Aspergillus carbonarius, by manipulating two key enzymes of the fatty acid metabolism of the fungus. Our strategy involved the replacement of the native promoters of the ATP-citrate lyase, which catalyzes the conversion of cytosolic citrate to acetyl-CoA, and fatty acid synthase, which is responsible for the biosynthesis of fatty acyl-ACP in the fatty acid metabolic pathway, with strong, constitutive promoters. With the enhanced expression of ATP-citrate lyase and fatty acid synthase, we managed to achieve a significant increase in the internal free fatty acid levels and triglyceride levels of the fungus, thus showing the potential of A. carbonarius as a producer of fatty acid-derived biofuels. In addition, we also increased the intracellular free fatty acid and triglyceride levels of the fungus by identifying and deleting the gene for FaaA fatty acyl synthetase, responsible for the conversion of fatty acid to fatty acyl-CoA which mediates the feedback inhibition of the fatty acid biosynthesis. Finally, we have studied the effect of the deletion of FarA regulatory protein which acts as a transcription factor for genes related to fatty acid degradation in fungi.
    Carrol Sujakhu*, Krishna Govinda Prajapati, and Jeena Amatya
    Background/Purpose: Pseudomonas aeruginosa is one of the most common gram-negative bacterium identified in the clinical specimens of hospital admitted patients. Carbapenems are used as the last resort for the treatment of MDR gram-negative bacterial infection. Resistance to this life saving drug has been increasingly reported in Pseudomonas which is mainly due to the production of MBL. Therefore, this study was conducted with an aim to assess the prevalance of MBL producing strains among MDR P.aeruginosa.
    Methods: Total of 5016 samples were analysed at the microbiology department of B and B hospital, Gwarko, Lalitpur from June 2017 to December 2017 for routine culture and antibiotic susceptibility testing. Organisms were identified by conventional microbiological method and antibiotic susceptibility test was performed by modified Kirby-Bauer disc diffusion (CLSI 2014) guidelines. Imipenem resistant strains were then subjected to screening for MBL production by Imipenem- EDTA CDT and Imipenem-EDTA DDST.
    Philip Raj Abraham, Deepti Parashar, Sanjay Kasetty, VD Sharma, and CT Shivannavar*
    Mycobacteria isolated from the environment are generally known as environmental mycobacteria, atypical mycobacteria or non tuberculous mycobacteria (NTM). They exist as saprophytes in all natural ecosystems and are known to be associated with human diseases especially in the immunocompromised individuals. Due to their great diversity and ubiquity, identification of NTM at the species level is very important especially when treatment options are about to start. In this study we made an attempt to isolate and characterize NTM from environmental samples such as soil and water collected from Kalaburagi district of south India. Environmental samples were decontaminated with NaOH and SDS and further incubated with cetrimide solutions. Out of the 38 samples collected, only 13.5% NTM were recovered. Each NTM isolate was characterized by biochemical tests and also by PCR-restriction enzyme analysis of hsp65 (heat shock protein) using HaeIII restriction enzyme. In this preliminary study, we could isolate and identify NTM such as M. fortuitum as well as M. phlei. However, it is important to isolate NTM in large numbers to study its prevalence in this part of the country.
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