Edna Gunaratnam1, Katherine James1 and Nikhil Vasdev1,2*
Abstract: In current urological oncological clinical practice nanotechnology and nanomedicine are being increasing used in radiological imaging, gene and drug therapy, thermal ablation techniques for tumours and helping increasing biology of urological malignancies. We present a short communication of these new developments in nanotechnology and nanomedicine that are currently taking place and the potential great benefits that these techniques will deliver to improving patient care and clinical outcomes in patients with urological malignancies.
Sharon M Friedman and Brenda P. Egolf
Abstract: Public distrust of scientific issues such as health risks from nanotechnology and nanomedicine can easily arise and be difficult to reverse as the recent examples of the measles vaccine and genetically modified foods have demonstrated. Most people learn about scientific issues from the mass media, yet this study found only 304 articles that discussed possible nanotechnology health risks over 12 years in 32 newspapers and two wire services in the United States and the United Kingdom. Despite this paucity of articles, the health risks were reported more frequently than nanotechnology environmental and societal risks, which were part of a larger study. Scientists were the information sources most likely to raise the nanotechnology health risk issues, and the majority of these articles were based on concerns about regulation and on studies or reports from scientific or government organizations. For two years, one online newspaper provided more extensive nanotechnology health risk coverage than did the traditional newspapers, but its coverage ended with a loss of financial support. If a public unfamiliar with nanotechnology health risks is confronted with extensive media coverage of a threatening accident or negative series of events, the situation could lead to a loss of public trust for the entire industry. Because the media are not telling the public the whole story about these possible health risks, those in the nanotechnology field are urged to develop effective strategies for communicating with the public about such risks.
Govinda R Navale1, Thripuranthaka M2, Dattatray J Late2,3* and Shinde S Sandip1,3
Abstract: Antimicrobial growth inhibition and mechanistic activities of synthesized Zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnO NPs) were investigated in this study. Nanoparticle size 20-25 nm and concentrations of 0, 20, 40, 60, 80 and 100 µg/mL were used against pathogenic bacteria Staphylococcus aureus (Gram positive) and Salmonella typhimurium (Gram negative) and also first time against two plant fungi Aspergillus strain of flavus and fumigatus. The growth analysis data indicated that the ZnO NPs have significant bactericidal effect on both the bacteria. The quantity of dried fungal biomass was negligible when the fungal culture was grown in presence of 100 µg/mL NPs. These microbial analyses data indicates that the ZnO NPs (size ~20-25 nm) have shown potential activity against these tested bacteria and fungi. Further examine the antimicrobial mechanisms of the ZnO NPs by UV photocatlytic and GSH oxidation methods, which suggested that ZnO NPs could produce reactive oxygen species, and also the oxidation capacity of NPs towards the γ-L-Glutamyl-L-cysteinyl-glycine (GSH) oxidation stress, were responsible for antimicrobial behaviour of ZnO NPs.
Abstract: Nanotechnology has been experiencing a transition from basic research and development on passive "First generation" nanopar-ticles and nanofibers to active "Second or Third generation" nanostructures including sensors, fuel cells, solar cells, biomimetic materials, drug delivery systems, and high performance nanocomposites. Accordingly, the environmental health and safety of nanotechnology (NanoEHS) studies are recommended to make a shift from basic nanomaterials to more complex active nanostructures. Among these materials, nanocomposite is an important type of material with rapid growth worldwide. Nanocomposites are internally nanostructured materials generated by nanofillers dispersed in a continuous matrix, which may modify the hazard profiles of the nanofillers to humans and the environment. Among them, carbon nanotubes (CNTs) have been extensively studied as fillers to enhance the mechanical and electrical properties of polymers and cements. However, to date, there are major challenges on their degradation processes, exposure and biological effects of these nanocomposites, especially the degraded fragments at the end of their lifecycle. Thus, there is an urgent need on studying the nanocomposites and developing predictive platforms to assess the hazard potential of these materials as recommended by 2011 National Nanotechnology Initiative (NNI) and 2012 President's Council of Advisors on Science and Technology (PCAST) reports.
Zhifeng Huang and Junjun Liu
Abstract: Silicon nanowires (SiNWs) are electrochemically porosified to generate mesopores in sizes of 2-50 nm, resulting in the creation of mesoporous silicon nanowires (mpSiNWs). The porosification imposes two characteristics on to SiNWs: an increase of surface areas in the porous profile and quantum confinement ascribed to the shrinkage of silicon skeletons. Since the first report on producing mpSiNWs in 2009, the emerging porous nanostructures are increasingly catching fundamental and technical interests, and diverse but limited applications have been explored in batteries, energy storage, photocatalysis, drug delivery and gas sensors. In this mini review, we will elaborate the porosification mechanism in metal-assisted chemical etching of Si wafers that has been dominantly employed to fabricate mpSiWNs, in terms of intrinsic properties of Si wafers (i.e. the doping level and dopant elements), ingredients of the etching solution, temperature and complementary porosification methods. Among various physical properties of mpSiWNs, photoluminescence (PL) has been intensively studied owing to the promising application of mpSiNWs in optoelectronics. PL of mpSiNWs sensitively varies with the intrinsic properties of parent Si wafers, temperature and porosification processes, and the origin is still ambiguous and under debate. It will be reviewed the current studies in PL, together with the antireflection that is highly desired in producing green energy. At the end, it will be envisaged the prospects of mpSiNWs for developing the integrated optoelectronic devices.