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  • ISSN: 2333-7087
    Early Online
    Volume 5, Issue 2
    Research Article
    Marelle Heesterbeek, Mike Jentsch, Peter Roemers, Jan N. Keijser, Kata Toth, Csaba Nyakas, Regien G. Schoemaker, Marieke J.G. van Heuvelen, and Eddy A. Van der Zee*
    Whole body vibration (WBV) is a form of physical stimulation brought about by mechanical vibrations transmitted to a subject. WBV can increase attention in cognitive tasks in mice and men. However, little is known about the mechanisms that underlie this improved brain functioning. We examined whether WBV affects the cholinergic forebrain system of mice. Male C57Bl/6J mice (2 months of age) received WBV in a cage attached to a small vibrating platform (30 Hz with peak-to-peak displacements ranging from 14 to 75mm). WBV was applied five days a week for a period of five weeks with daily sessions of ten minutes. Control mice (pseudo-WBV) were treated similarly, but did not receive the actual vibration. Mice were sacrificed 24 hours after the last session and their brains were processed immuno cyto chemically for the acetylcholine-synthesizing enzyme cholineacetyl transferase (ChAT). ChAT-immunoreactivity was measured in the nucleus basalis magnocellularis (NBM), the somatosensory cortex, and the basolateral amygdala (where the cholinergic fibers arising from the NBM terminate). ChAT-immunoreactivity was significantly increased due to WBV in layer 5 of the somatosensory cortex (by 23%; p< 0.01) and amygdala (by 21%; p<0.05), but not in the NBM as compared to pseudo-WBV. As increased ChAT-immunoreactivity indicates a higher cholinergic activity, these results reveal that the positive effects of WBV on attention are most likely (at least in part) mediated by an increased activity of the NBM cholinergic system. WBV could therefore be a suitable intervention strategy in conditions where a reduced cholinergic forebrain activity plays a role.
    Nobila Valentin Yameogo1*, Ela Lengani1, Labodi Lompo2, Salamata Nabaloum1, Larissa JustineKagambega1, AnaTall/Thiam1, Koudougou Jonas Kologo1, Georges Rosario Christian Millogo1, AimeArseneYameogo, Jean Baptiste Tougouma, Ouseni Diallo, Andre Samadoulougou, and Patrice Zabsonre
    Authors report a case of success of stroke thrombolysis with streptokinase in a 72-year-old woman. Patients son called directly intensive care unit in cardiology for direct hospitalization. The authors emphasize that studies on streptokinase should be conducted in developing countries in order to propose treatment in patients with ischemic stroke pending recombinant tissue plasminogen activator (rt-PA) advent.
    Review Article
    Milan Jokanovic*
    Approximately 90 years have passed since the ?rst cases of organophosphate induced delayed polyneuropathy (OPIDP), as the consequence of human poisoning with certain organophosphorus compounds, were described in the literature. OPIDP is a relatively rare neurodegenerative disorder in humans characterized by loss of function, ataxia and paralysis of distal parts of sensory and motor axons in peripheral nerves and ascending and descending tracts of spinal cord appearing usually 23 weeks after exposure. The aim of this review is to discuss clinical presentation, pathogenesis and molecular mechanisms of OPIDP in man.
    Ferranti S*, Rossetti A, Cerrone C, Grande E, and Grosso S
    Ataxia is a complex neurological sign that can have both genetic and acquired etiologies. It has often been described as an adverse drug reaction associated with the use of antiepileptic drugs, both when given at appropriate dose and in case of overdose. Recognizing this clinical sign in children might be challenging. We performed a short literature review of this phenomenon focusing our research on pediatrics cases related to the use of second and third generation anticonvulsants.
    Case Report
    Luis Rodrigo*, Carlos Hernandez-Lahoz C, Eugenia Lauret E, Maria Rodriguez-Pelaez M1, Martin Cpranda, Rachel Ciccocioppo, and Peter Kruzliak
    Refractory celiac disease (RCD) is defined as a clinical complicated variant of celiac disease (CD), characterized by the persistence of recurrent mal absorption symptoms and villous atrophy, despite a strict adherence to a gluten-free diet (GFD) for at least 6-12 months, in the absence of other causes of non-response and overt associated any type of cancer. The prognosis is dismal and fortunately its prevalence is very rare, being estimated, in less than 5% of CD diagnosed total population. We describe the onset of this complication in the same family, affecting two siblings, a man of 59 years with a progressive myoclonic ataxia and a woman of 50 years, with a jejunal localization of an Enteropathy Associated T-cell Lymphoma (EATL). Both died within a few months after the onset of their RCD, as a consequence of the associated complications of the illness. For establishing a firm diagnosis it is necessary to confirm the presence of abnormal changes in the intraepithelial lymphocyte population. These patients did not express the surface receptors (CD3 and CD8) and had a positive monoclonal detection of T receptor chains confirmed in both siblings, as positive markers of immunological diagnosis of RCD-2 type in these patients, according to an aggressive clinical course and a poor prognosis. The family association of this important complication (RCD-type II) is remarkable and the neurologic complication of a myoclonic ataxia is very uncommon.
    Short Communication
    Kate L. Frost1, Mo Chen, Jessica M. Cassidy, Le Ann M. Snow, James S. Hodges, Ann L. Van de Winckel, Teresa J. Kimberley, and James R. Carey*
    Background: Some of the deficit in people with stroke results from down-regulation of surviving neurons. Up-regulation can be enhanced with transcranial magnetic stimulation methods. Paired associative stimulation (PAS) is one such method but this has not been explored sufficiently in stroke. Further, N-of-1 clinical trials are valuable in eliminating inter-subject variability to develop individualized interventions.
    Objective: Explore the effects of PAS using different interstimulus intervals (ISIs) to suppress excitability of the contralesional primary motor area (M1) in stroke.
    Methods: We used an N-of-1, blinded, crossover design with random assignment of four PAS treatment arms to three people with stroke. Each PAS treatment involved 225 pairs of transcranial magnetic stimuli to contralesional M1 paired with electrical stimuli to the median nerve at the nonparetic wrist. Three suppressive ISIs plus a sham condition were compared. The dependent variable was cortical excitability measured by peak-to-peak amplitude of motor evoked potentials over time.
    Results: Two participants with cortical lesions exhibited significant overall suppression of cortical excitability with an ISI of N20-7ms, whereas a participant with basal ganglia lesion showed significant facilitation with the same ISI.
    Conclusions: PAS suppressed cortical excitability in cortical stroke but facilitated excitability in basal ganglia stroke. The divergent responses may stem from literature accounts of metaplasticity differences involving individualized intracellular calcium oscillations around thresholds that govern the magnitude and direction of synaptic plasticity to maintain synaptic homeostasis..
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