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  • ISSN: 2333-7087
    Early Online
    Volume 5, Issue 1
    Short Communication
    Blaauw G* and Muhlig RS
    In this short review article we wish to present our attitude to the indications and management of obstetric brachial plexus palsy cases based on our experience with more than 500 children. A great many international meetings and repeated discussions with colleagues concerning the subject have taken place in the past years.
    Review Article
    Dureja GP*
    Intercostal neuralgia is pain in the thoracic region emanating from an intercostal nerve. It occurs commonly after thoracotomy. It can also be seen in elderly debilitated patients without a known precipitating event, other causes include rib trauma, very rarely benign periosteal lipoma and pregnancy. Intercostal neuralgia due to surgical injury of the intercostal nerve has traditionally been difficult to treat. No single treatment modality has been curative. There are several treatment options available, including systemic medications, topical or invasive nerve blocks, cryoablation, and radio ablation. Despite numerous treatment advances, many patients remain refractory to the current therapies and continue to have pain, physical and psychological distress. In this review, we will discuss the pathophysiology of intercostal neuralgia, its clinical manifestations, diagnosis and various pharmacological, non-pharmacological and interventional treatment modalities, as also the insight into the potential complications of the disease and treatment modalities.
    Gerald Chukwudi Imaezue* and Ibraheem Abiodun Salako
    Auditory word comprehension is the process through which spoken language is heard, interpreted and understood. This ability is impaired when there is damage to specific language areas in brain as a result of stroke. Auditory word comprehension impairment is a disabling sequalae of stroke characterised with semantic and phonological deficits. This review summarises key findings on stroke induced auditory word comprehension deficit and approaches to treatment leading to a new hypothesis of semantic treatment that we term integrated semantic treatment. Integrated semantic treatment offers solution to treatment of auditory word comprehension impairment by manipulation of some neuroscientific principles.
    Case Report
    Muhammad Shah Miran*, Leah Roering, Alberto Maud, Michelle Peterson, Kenneth Shea, and M Fareed K Suri
    Background: Intravenous (IV) alteplase is not recommended in acute ischemic stroke patients with concurrent infective endocarditis (AIS-IE) due to high rates of hemorrhagic conversion, death, and disability.
    Methods: We report a case in which a patient received IV alteplase and was later diagnosed with possible infective endocarditis. Previously published literature regarding similar cases and articles on PubMed was also reviewed.
    Case summary: A 36-year-old male patient with no history of hypertension, diabetes, a trial fibrillation, hyper lipidemia, or other classic risk factors for stroke presented to the emergency room (ER) with a sudden onset of left hemiparesis, numbness, and left facial droop. NIHSS at admission was 10. His blood pressure was 137/100 mmHg, temperature 98.1 F, respiratory rate 23, and pulse 105. His WBC count was 13.8 K/UL. Physical exam was negative for cardiac murmurs, fever, and vascular stigmata associated with IE. Patient had a history of migraine headaches, but denied headache at the time of presentation. Per the patient's history, he had suffered a low-grade fever for the past few days which he had attributed to West Nile fever. Patient's history was negative for seizures and stroke. Initial computed tomography (CT) of the head was negative for any bleeding. Patient was assessed and administered IV alteplase (0.9mg/kg) within the American Heart Association's (AHA) time frame recommendations (67 minutes from onset of symptoms). The next day the patient's hemiparesis resolved with NIHSS of 0. Considering his reported history of low-grade fevers in conjunction with multiple small infarcts revealed on his MRI, infective endocarditis (IE) was investigated as a possible cause of the embolic stroke. Blood cultures were positive for gram positive cocci in clusters. Follow-up imaging revealed asymptomatic hemorrhagic conversion. IV Penicillin G was initiated and prescribed for six weeks.
    Conclusion: While evaluating young AIS patients for IV alteplase, who present without classic stroke risk factors, a thorough history and clinical exam with a specific focus on the signs and symptoms of IE, systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS), and other embolic diseases can help reduce hemorrhagic complications. Absence of fever, vascular stigmata, and cardiac murmur at presentation does not necessarily exclude the possibility of IE. Afebrile patients who report a recent history of fever warrant caution before treatment with thrombolytics.
    Sarah Seyffert* and Wade Kvatum
    The relationship between headache and seizure is a poorly understood and controversial topic; however, the literature has recently suggested that the two conditions may be related. The interplay between these conditions seems to be even more complex in a group of patients with epilepsy related headaches. It has been proposed that the association could be classified into preictal, ictal, postictal, or interictal headaches. Here we present a case report of a 62 year old male who presented with a chief complaint of new onset severe headache and subsequently underwent multiple diagnostic testing modalities before he was finally diagnosed and treated for epilepsy, which lead to the resolution of his headache. We conclude with a short discussion of how to subcategorize seizure related headaches based on their temporal relationship and why they can pose such a difficult diagnostic challenge.
    Research Article
    Marelle Heesterbeek, Mike Jentsch, Peter Roemers, Jan N. Keijser, Kata Toth, Csaba Nyakas, Regien G. Schoemaker, Marieke J.G. van Heuvelen, and Eddy A. Van der Zee*
    Whole body vibration (WBV) is a form of physical stimulation brought about by mechanical vibrations transmitted to a subject. WBV can increase attention in cognitive tasks in mice and men. However, little is known about the mechanisms that underlie this improved brain functioning. We examined whether WBV affects the cholinergic forebrain system of mice. Male C57Bl/6J mice (2 months of age) received WBV in a cage attached to a small vibrating platform (30 Hz with peak-to-peak displacements ranging from 14 to 75mm). WBV was applied five days a week for a period of five weeks with daily sessions of ten minutes. Control mice (pseudo-WBV) were treated similarly, but did not receive the actual vibration. Mice were sacrificed 24 hours after the last session and their brains were processed immuno cyto chemically for the acetylcholine-synthesizing enzyme cholineacetyl transferase (ChAT). ChAT-immunoreactivity was measured in the nucleus basalis magnocellularis (NBM), the somatosensory cortex, and the basolateral amygdala (where the cholinergic fibers arising from the NBM terminate). ChAT-immunoreactivity was significantly increased due to WBV in layer 5 of the somatosensory cortex (by 23%; p< 0.01) and amygdala (by 21%; p<0.05), but not in the NBM as compared to pseudo-WBV. As increased ChAT-immunoreactivity indicates a higher cholinergic activity, these results reveal that the positive effects of WBV on attention are most likely (at least in part) mediated by an increased activity of the NBM cholinergic system. WBV could therefore be a suitable intervention strategy in conditions where a reduced cholinergic forebrain activity plays a role.
    Nobila Valentin Yameogo1*, Ela Lengani1, Labodi Lompo2, Salamata Nabaloum1, Larissa JustineKagambega1, AnaTall/Thiam1, Koudougou Jonas Kologo1, Georges Rosario Christian Millogo1, AimeArseneYameogo, Jean Baptiste Tougouma, Ouseni Diallo, Andre Samadoulougou, and Patrice Zabsonre
    Authors report a case of success of stroke thrombolysis with streptokinase in a 72-year-old woman. Patients son called directly intensive care unit in cardiology for direct hospitalization. The authors emphasize that studies on streptokinase should be conducted in developing countries in order to propose treatment in patients with ischemic stroke pending recombinant tissue plasminogen activator (rt-PA) advent.
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