The Schistosoma mansoni egg develops in the female worm ooctype where the oocyte and surrounding vitelline granules become enclosed by a protective shell. The schisto some egg is then transported through the uterus to emerge from the genital pore of the intravascular worm. It is not known how eggs successfully enter the perivascular space and how they transit the intestinal wall into the stools. That this route is far from fail-safe is evident from the fact that eggs only have a fifty-fifty chance to make it from their intravascular location into the environment. The fate of “failed” eggs, which are swept by the blood stream to form end up in the liver of infected individuals, can be studied by injecting schistosome eggs in an experimental thrombosis model into the mouse caecal vein. Perioval coagulation and repair in the liver was demonstrated by immune histology for fibrin and fibronectin. Trapped eggs caused transient fibrin deposition, suggesting a fibrinolytic process. This was confirmed by the demonstration of perioval plasmin in an infected monkey. Fibronectin deposition indicated an early repair process with extracellular matrix formation. That a similar sequence of events may occur in the intestinal wall was suggested by presence of perioval fibrin and fibronectin. However, successful transit of eggs may depend on several mechanisms. Passage through the vascular endothelium is a decisive moment determining the future of the egg and possibly the kind of host response elicited during the journey through the tissues. Our observations on in vitro oviposition suggest that the female schistosome ejects the egg through the vascular endothelium. Thus extravasation of “successful” eggs seems to occur by a mechanism distinct from that of failed eggs. This does not exclude the possibility that tissue degradation associated with fibrinolysis may be involved in successful transit of eggs into the excretions.
Olgary Figueroa-Santiago and Ana M. Espino*
Fasciola hepatica is a parasitic helminth that induces Th2/Treg responses in its mammalian host. Some reports have suggested that ESPs achieve these polarized immune responses by delaying the activation of dendritic cells and macrophages during the early stages of innate immunity, a process that is mediated by TLR4. The present study aimed to investigate whether TLRs other than TLR4 could also be targeted by F. hepatica ESPs.
To achieve this aim a screening system was optimized using THP1-Blue CD14 cells. ESPs were first separated based on their molecular weight and according their net charge by ion exchange chromatography (IEC). Results demonstrated that F. hepatica ESPs mainly cathepsin, serpin and endopin are capable of activating TLR2, TLR4, TLR8 and likely also TLR5 and TLR6. In contrast, fatty acid binding protein strongly suppressed the stimulation induced by various TLR-ligands. Further studies are needed to understand how these apparent contradictory effects of molecules of the same protein mix complement each other in the context of an active infection resulting in the polarized Th2-immune response that characterize F. hepatica infections.
Manoucheher Aghajanzadeh*, Mehdi Karimian, Zahra Sadat Segatoleslami, Shirin Manshori, Rassol Hassanzadeh, and Tahereh Marasi
Introduction: Hydatid cyst is a condition commonly affecting liver and lungs caused most commonly by Echinococcusgranulosus whereas musculoskeletal hydatidosis is very rare. Intramuscular hydatid cysts Usually are secondary and resulting from the spread of cysts from other organs, either spontaneously rupture or after spreading from operations for hydatidosis in other regions.
Case presentation: We present an unusual case of a primary hydatid cyst found in the base of neck in the trapezes (latismous muscle), muscle on the right side of neck in a woman with a non-specific clinical presentation. Ultrasound findings revealed a multilocular intramuscular solid and cyst lesion in the anterior aspect of trapesous (latismous muscle) muscle. We removed the entire part of solid and cyst lesion surgically. Macroscopic and microscopic histopathological examinations confirmed the diagnosis of muscular hydid cyst.
Conclusion: In regions where hydatid disease is endemic, a cystic lesion in any part of the body should be considered a hydatid cyst until proven otherwise. The best treatment is the total excision of the cyst with an intact wall.
Hydatid cyst is a parasitic disease caused by infection with Taeniaechinococcus that is endemic to many areas of the world, but due to the current ease of worldwide travel may be seen also in non-endemic areas. The disease commonly affects the liver and the lungs, but may also involve the central nervous system (CNS).
Polat FR*, Duran Y, and Sakalli O
Mesenteric cyst is uncommonbenign lesion. Its etiology remains unknown. Mesenteric cyst may be asymptomatic or symptomatic. Treatment of the cyst is surgically excised. The cyst almost invariablyrecurs after surgery. The aim of this literature is to demonstrate a rare case of mesenteric cyst with literature reviews emphasizing on the clinical presentations and surgical treatment.
Rozenek Miriam, Ramilo Maria del Carmen, Romani Adriana, Aronson Sandra, Camera Luis
We feature the case of an 81 year old woman who presented thoracic herpes zoster (HZ) in November 2014, and although she was correctly and promptly treated with Aciclovir and different analgesic medications, presented a postherpetic neuralgia which was very difficult to treat as she couldn´t tolerate pain killers (digestive intolerance, falls and balance disturbances). After more than one year of the initial episode she was diagnosed with a colon cancer which she died for 15 months after the HZ episode.
We reviewed the literature and updated the topic of post herpetic neuralgia (PHN), its diagnosis, management, prognosis and prevention, and risk factors of HZ and PHN.
Jaqueline Dario Capobiango*, Sthefany Pagliari, Aline Kuhn Sbruzzi Pasquali, Beatriz Ninob, Fernanda Pinto Ferreira, Thais Cabral Monica, Italmar Teodorico Navarro, Joao Luis Garcia, Regina Mitsuka-Bregano, and Edna Maria Vissoci Reiche
The diagnosis of congenital toxoplasmosis is difficult because the majority of infected children have negative results for anti-Toxoplasma gondii IgM. We evaluated an enzyme immunoassay (ELISA) with the recombinant ROP2 antigen (ELISA-rROP2) of T. gondii for detecting IgG antibodies. The tachyzoite RH strain was used for DNA extraction and incorporation into an Escherichia coli (E. coli) vector for rROP2 protein expression. Polystyrene microplates were sensitized with the rROP2 protein, and serum samples from 27 children with suspected congenital toxoplasmosis were tested. Nine (33.3%) children had a confirmed diagnosis of congenital toxoplasmosis, and in 18 cases (66.7%), the condition was ruled out. The test showed a sensitivity of 44.4% [95% confidence interval (CI) 13.7 - 78.8], a specificity of 55.6% (95% CI 30.8 - 78.5), a positive predictive value of 33.3% (95% CI 10.0 - 65.1), and a negative predictive value of 66.7% (95% CI 38.4 - 88.2).
Conclusion: Further studies should be performed with ELISA-rROP2 method for the detection of anti-T. gondii IgG for diagnosis of congenital toxoplasmosis.