Sujeet Raina* and Rashmi Kaul Raina
Aim: Visceral Leishmaniasis (VL) may lead to variable haematological responses like cytopenias, hemophagocytosis, dyserythropoiesis and increase in plasma cells. The purpose of this study was to investigate the hematological manifestation of VL and associated changes that may be observed in bone marrow aspirate smears.
Materials and methods: A 12-year hospital based cross section observational study was conducted in the Department of Medicine and Pathology in two tertiary care centres of Himachal Pradesh, located in the Northern India. In all 18 patients who were diagnosed as visceral leishmaniasis on the basis of demonstration of amastigotes, Leishman Donovan (LD) bodies in bone marrow aspiration smears were included in the study. Detail clinical history, examination and investigation were carried in each case as per protocol.
Results: Anemia was present in all the cases. Pancytopenia was observed in 61.1% of cases. Normocytic normochromic and dimorphic picture was the most common finding on peripheral smear. Bone marrow was normocellular in 83.3% of cases. Erythropoiesis was normoblastic in 33.3% of patients. Increased plasma cells, lymphocytes and histiocytes were seen in 50%, 33.3% and 22.2% of cases respectively.
Conclusion: In non-endemic region where clinical suspicion is low, bone marrow findings can be a strong indicator for VL and pathologist should look for LD bodies in the bone marrow to prevent the unnecessary delay in diagnosis.
Erika B. Dugo, Clement G. Yedjou, Jacqueline J. Stevens, and Paul B. Tchounwou*
Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), the dominant form of primary liver cancer, is the sixth most common cancer in the world with more than 700,000 people diagnosed annually. Arsenic trioxide (ATO) has been shown to be a potent anticancer agent in various carcinomas, proving particularly effective in the clinical treatment of relapsed and refractory acute promyelocytic leukemia. However, its bioactivity and molecular mechanisms against HCC has not been fully studied. Using human HCC (HepG2) cells as a test model, we studied the effects of ATO and examined the role of oxidative stress (OS) and apoptosis in cytotoxicity. OS biomarkers showed a significant increase (p< 0.05) of malondialdehyde concentrations, and a gradual decrease of antioxidant enzymes (GPx & CAT) activities with increasing ATO doses. Flow cytometry data showed a dose dependent increase in annex in V positive cells and caspase 3 activities. These results were confirmed by data of the DNA laddering assay showing a clear evidence of nucleosomal DNA fragmentation, as well as data from Western blotting showing a significant modulation of specific apoptotic related proteins, including the activation of p53 and p21 expression and the down-regulation of Bcl-2 expression in ATO-treated cells. Taken together, our research demonstrates that ATO has a potential therapeutic effect against HCC, and its cytotoxicity may be mediated via oxidative stress and activation of the mitochondrial or intrinsic pathway of apoptosis.
Gonzalez-Canto A*, Escalona-Montano AR, Ruiz-Remigio A, Ximenez-Garcia C, Del Callejo-Canal D, Gutierrez-Ruiz C, Lopez-Vancell R and Perez Tamayo R
The presence of anti-amoebapore antibodies was detected through an enzymatic immunoassay linked to an enzyme (ELISA) and immune electro transference (Western Blot) in patients with a clinical diagnosis of amoebic liver abscess (ALA).
Twenty-five samples of serum of patients from General Hospital of Mexico with a previous clinical diagnosis of ALA were assessed. In addition to this, the samples obtained from other 22 subjects were evaluated to form the 4 control groups that are described as follows: 9 patients with pyogenic liver abscess (PLA), 3 with leishmaniasis, 3 with trypanosomiasis, and, 7 healthy ones. Out of the patients previously diagnosed with ALA, 60% tested positive in the actual ELISA analysis; the same outcome was obtained in the Western Blot (WB) assay. The statistical analysis with the Receiver Operating Characteristic Curve (ROC) showed values of 100% of sensitivity and 100% of specificity in the ELISA technique using pure amoebapore. Therefore, the ELISA with the amoebapore protein seems to be a good choice for the serum diagnosis of ALA.
Junaid Ahmad, Bashir Ahmad Sofi, Mohd Suhail Lone, Lubna Samad, Nayeem U Din Wani, Abiroo Jan, Shagufta Roohi, and Dalip K Kakru*
Most serodiagnostic techniques have been evaluated for diagnosis of cystic hydatid disease caused by Echinococcus granulosus. Each, to varying degrees, has been shown to give false results, with considerable variation between laboratories. The comparative retrospective study was done concerning the sensitivity of the different commercially available IgG ELISA kits based on previous laboratory records of 55 patients diagnosed as hydatid disease either intraoperatively or post operative histopathology with different cyst locations. In house ELISA, DRG IgG kit, Nova Lisa kit and Ridascreen IgG kit were studied. Specific IgG ELISA AgB (antigen B-rich fraction) was the most sensitive test (100%) and the least sensitive tests were the In House ELISA (75%), DRG (75%), Nova Lisa (66.66%), these results coincide basically with the findings of most researchers.
Letter to Editor
Vitorino Modesto dos Santos*
I have read the very interesting review manuscript by Arber AA et al.(2016), related to the current WHO classification of myeloid neoplasms and acute leukemia .
Fatin R. Polat*
Hydatid liver disease is endemic in certain parts of the world. Treatment can be either medical with anti-helmintic drugs, percutaneous drainage or surgical(conventional, or laparoscopic intervention). This review is summarized the algorithmic approach to treatment of liver hydatid cyst.
Hector Jose Yaya-Loo*, Giovagna Rojas Montalvo, and George Vega Vivas
Hydatid cyst disease is endemic, occurs following accidental ingestion of eggs released from the intestine of the definitive hosts and commonly invades the liver and the lungs. A man with a large cyst intracranial, with symptoms of intracranial hypertension and a solitary cardiac cyst is presented. The cyst was removed after suitable craniotomy. A review of the literature is presented.
Letter to Editor
Lukambagire A*, Jahanpour O, and Nyindo M
I recently read with great interest a newly published update on the development and evaluation of a novel group of vaccines against NTDs . In this article, the authors elaborate on the ground-breaking approaches in application to develop vaccines against a group of mainly parasitic, multi-cellular organisms possessing immune-modulating properties. This group of vaccines therefore requires a whole new approach and protocols for efficacy testing and vaccine development that are to date still within the realm of ‘weird science .’
Bosoon Park*, Youngwook Seo, Matthew Eady, Seung-Chul Yoon, Arthur Hinton, Jr., Kurt Lawrence, and Gary Gamble
Among serious foodborne outbreaks, Salmonella has the most infections and incidence cases. Because Salmonella is a leading cause of foodborne illness and a zoonotic agent capable of causing gastroenteritis and septicemia, Salmonella detection and identification has become an important subject of research for the poultry industry. Based on the numerous culture protocols to characterize Salmonella spp., traditional culture-based methods are still the most reliable and accurate "gold standard" techniques for presumptive-positive pathogen detection. However, they are laborious and time consuming processes. Therefore, rapid detection and identification of pathogenic microorganisms naturally occurring during food processing are important in developing intervention and verification strategies. Since current detection methods for Salmonella are limited for a practical use, a more sensitive, accurate and rapid pathogen detection method is needed to prevent foodborne outbreaks. Non-destructive advanced optical methods, such as hyperspectral imaging for evaluation of foodborne pathogens could enhance the presumptive-positive screening method by reducing labor and increasing detection speed. Among the several different hyperspectral imaging platforms, acousto-optic tunable filter (AOTF)-based hyperspectral imaging method was developed for microscopic imaging of live bacterial cells from microcolony on agar plates. Thus, the objective of this research is to develop a hyperspectral microscopic imaging method to classify Salmonella serotypes with their spectral signatures from the cells. Five Salmonella serotypes including Enteritidis (SE), Typhimurium (ST), Kentucky (SK), Heidelberg (SH) and Infantis (SI) and five different machine learning algorithms including Mahalanobis distance (MD), k-nearest neighbor (k-NN), linear discriminant analysis (LDA), quadratic discriminant analysis (QDA), and support vector machine (SVM) were used for classification method development. The SVM algorithm performed better than other algorithms with average classification accuracy of 93.6% (SE), 97.6% (ST), 90.7% (SK), 93.0% (SH), and 94.2% (SI).
Getachew Geleta and Tsige Ketema*
Although the current trend of malaria infection showing a declining pattern, it is a major cause of death in some parts of the world. Majority of deaths due to malaria are frequently occurring in sub-Saharan Africa among biologically risked groups. Thus, this study was designed to assess prevalence of severe malaria symptoms among pregnant women in Pawe hospital, Northwestern Ethiopia. Febrile pregnant women, seeking medication for malaria infection in the hospital during the study period were recruited in the study. Socio-demographic characteristics, physical and clinical features of uncomplicated and complicated malaria symptoms were assessed following standard parasitological and clinical procedures. Data was analyzed using SPSS statistical software (version 20.0 Armok, NY: IBM Crop). During the study period, a total of 124 pregnant women were malaria positive, showing a prevalence of 16.31% (n=124/760). Of these, 73.55% (n=89) were infected with Plasmodium falciparum. The rest were positive for P. vivax and had mixed infections. Severe malaria symptoms such as respiratory distress, confusion, severe anemia, hyperparasitemia, prostration, and hemoglobinuria were observed among assessed malaria infected pregnant women. The study revealed the high prevalence of malaria infection in the study sites. In addition, significant number of the pregnant women assessed were developed severe life threatening malaria symptoms.
The Schistosoma mansoni egg develops in the female worm ooctype where the oocyte and surrounding vitelline granules become enclosed by a protective shell. The schisto some egg is then transported through the uterus to emerge from the genital pore of the intravascular worm. It is not known how eggs successfully enter the perivascular space and how they transit the intestinal wall into the stools. That this route is far from fail-safe is evident from the fact that eggs only have a fifty-fifty chance to make it from their intravascular location into the environment. The fate of “failed” eggs, which are swept by the blood stream to form end up in the liver of infected individuals, can be studied by injecting schistosome eggs in an experimental thrombosis model into the mouse caecal vein. Perioval coagulation and repair in the liver was demonstrated by immune histology for fibrin and fibronectin. Trapped eggs caused transient fibrin deposition, suggesting a fibrinolytic process. This was confirmed by the demonstration of perioval plasmin in an infected monkey. Fibronectin deposition indicated an early repair process with extracellular matrix formation. That a similar sequence of events may occur in the intestinal wall was suggested by presence of perioval fibrin and fibronectin. However, successful transit of eggs may depend on several mechanisms. Passage through the vascular endothelium is a decisive moment determining the future of the egg and possibly the kind of host response elicited during the journey through the tissues. Our observations on in vitro oviposition suggest that the female schistosome ejects the egg through the vascular endothelium. Thus extravasation of “successful” eggs seems to occur by a mechanism distinct from that of failed eggs. This does not exclude the possibility that tissue degradation associated with fibrinolysis may be involved in successful transit of eggs into the excretions.
Manoucheher Aghajanzadeh*, Mehdi Karimian, Zahra Sadat Segatoleslami, Shirin Manshori, Rassol Hassanzadeh, and Tahereh Marasi
Introduction: Hydatid cyst is a condition commonly affecting liver and lungs caused most commonly by Echinococcusgranulosus whereas musculoskeletal hydatidosis is very rare. Intramuscular hydatid cysts Usually are secondary and resulting from the spread of cysts from other organs, either spontaneously rupture or after spreading from operations for hydatidosis in other regions.
Case presentation: We present an unusual case of a primary hydatid cyst found in the base of neck in the trapezes (latismous muscle), muscle on the right side of neck in a woman with a non-specific clinical presentation. Ultrasound findings revealed a multilocular intramuscular solid and cyst lesion in the anterior aspect of trapesous (latismous muscle) muscle. We removed the entire part of solid and cyst lesion surgically. Macroscopic and microscopic histopathological examinations confirmed the diagnosis of muscular hydid cyst.
Conclusion: In regions where hydatid disease is endemic, a cystic lesion in any part of the body should be considered a hydatid cyst until proven otherwise. The best treatment is the total excision of the cyst with an intact wall.