Rozenek Miriam, Ramilo Maria del Carmen, Romani Adriana, Aronson Sandra, Camera Luis
We feature the case of an 81 year old woman who presented thoracic herpes zoster (HZ) in November 2014, and although she was correctly and promptly treated with Aciclovir and different analgesic medications, presented a postherpetic neuralgia which was very difficult to treat as she couldn´t tolerate pain killers (digestive intolerance, falls and balance disturbances). After more than one year of the initial episode she was diagnosed with a colon cancer which she died for 15 months after the HZ episode.
We reviewed the literature and updated the topic of post herpetic neuralgia (PHN), its diagnosis, management, prognosis and prevention, and risk factors of HZ and PHN.
D Gantois*, Y Goudard, A Wolf, PY Imbert, G Pauleau, and P Sockeel
Salmonella is a bacteria usually infecting the gastrointestinal system. However, other unusual presentations can be encountered such as genital tract infection. This case is about a young woman with suspected salpingitis and peritonitiswho was eventually treated for an infected ovarian cyst by a Salmonella entericaenterica serovar Reading. She had a four-day history of diffuse abdominal pain and presented increased white cell count and C reactive protein. She was not sexually active and did not have any genital symptoms or diarrhea. The first computed tomography revealed a right ovarian cyst and peritonitis but after an unsuccessful treatment attempt with laparoscopic peritoneal lavage and antibiotics, a second computed tomography revealed an increase of the cyst’s size compatible with an ovarian abscess. The patient was successfully treated with surgical drainage of the cyst and antibiotics. Salmonella can infect an ovarian cyst via the haematogenous or uro-genital route and cause unusual but severe clinical presentations. Salmonella serovar Reading is rarely encountered in human medicine and this is the first reported case of an ovarian cyst infected with this serogroup.
Jaqueline Dario Capobiango*, Sthefany Pagliari, Aline Kuhn Sbruzzi Pasquali, Beatriz Ninob, Fernanda Pinto Ferreira, Thais Cabral Monica, Italmar Teodorico Navarro, Joao Luis Garcia, Regina Mitsuka-Bregano, and Edna Maria Vissoci Reiche
The diagnosis of congenital toxoplasmosis is difficult because the majority of infected children have negative results for anti-Toxoplasma gondii IgM. We evaluated an enzyme immunoassay (ELISA) with the recombinant ROP2 antigen (ELISA-rROP2) of T. gondii for detecting IgG antibodies. The tachyzoite RH strain was used for DNA extraction and incorporation into an Escherichia coli (E. coli) vector for rROP2 protein expression. Polystyrene microplates were sensitized with the rROP2 protein, and serum samples from 27 children with suspected congenital toxoplasmosis were tested. Nine (33.3%) children had a confirmed diagnosis of congenital toxoplasmosis, and in 18 cases (66.7%), the condition was ruled out. The test showed a sensitivity of 44.4% [95% confidence interval (CI) 13.7 - 78.8], a specificity of 55.6% (95% CI 30.8 - 78.5), a positive predictive value of 33.3% (95% CI 10.0 - 65.1), and a negative predictive value of 66.7% (95% CI 38.4 - 88.2).
Conclusion: Further studies should be performed with ELISA-rROP2 method for the detection of anti-T. gondii IgG for diagnosis of congenital toxoplasmosis.
Javier R. Ambrosio*, Araceli Ferrer, and Armando Zepeda-Rodriguez
The broad-spectrum antiparasitic drug nitazoxanide (NTZ) is one of the most successful parasitological treatments for humans with the diseases caused by the tapeworm Taenia solium: cysticercosis, caused by the larval muscular stage, and taeniasis, caused by the intestinal adult stage. NTZ is a 5-nitrothiazolyl derivative indicated as an alternative drug when an infection is resistant to other traditional drugs. In protozoans, it inhibits central physiological enzymes and produces lesions in the cell membrane and vacuolization. However, it is necessary to determine if these effects are also produced in helminths. Here, we present morphological evidence at the structural and ultrastructural levels of the in vitro effects of NTZ on trypsin-induced evaginated cysticerci of T. solium and the intestinal adult parasite stage. NTZ clearly produced important changes on the surfaces of the treated parasites, which affected the morphology of important structures, such as the pore of the invaginated scolex, the initial evagination process, the cephalic, neck, and the strobilar chains of the intestinal tapeworm. These effects may be related to the impairment of glucose metabolism and the consequent loss of the capacity of T. solium taenias to become established in their hosts and to establish a successful infection.
This review has gathered and summarized prevalence data of varicella zoster virus (VZV) infection among encephalitis patients reported in 20 studies conducted in different areas of the world. Varicella is considered as a less common disease in tropical areas compared to temperate areas. According to literature, VZV induced central nervous system (CNS) diseases such as encephalitis is common among adults compared to children, especially due to vaccination of children. Studies conducted in California, USA and Australia has concluded that the VZV induced encephalitis among children has reduced after the introduction of varicella vaccine. However, it was difficult to perform comparisons between VZV prevalence among encephalitis patients from tropical and temperate areas and between children and adults. The reasons were, the limited number of studies found from tropical area, lack of studies conducted exclusively with adults and the introductions of varicella vaccine since 1995. Different countries have different legislations regarding varicella immunization. In some countries, it is a part of national vaccination programmes. Studies included here were not categorized as from pre-vaccination or post-vaccination periods of reporting countries. However, among the indicated studies, the highest VZV prevalence was seen among children suffering with encephalitis in a temperate country (Finland – 25%) from 1973 to 1987. Lowest was reported in Eastern India (0.38%) from 2011 – 2012, a region extends across sub-tropical and tropical areas.
Shimaa A.A. Ismail*
Background: Environmental toxicants have been found to induce multiple adverse effects on human and animal’s body organs including, kidney and immune system. Presently, this experiment was designed to assess the nephro-protective and immune-stimulant effects of spirulina platensis microalgae against lead acetate induced attenuated body immune response and oxidative renal damages.
Methods: 40 male albino rats were randomly divided into equal 4 groups. In comparison with control (C) group. Animals were received spirulina platenesis (300 mg/kg b. wt, orally) and/or lead acetate (50 mg/kg b.wt, IP) for 4 weeks. Samples were collected at the end of the experimental period. Protective effects of SP were checked by measuring selective hematological, immunological and biochemical tests, besides histopathological and immunohistochemical investigations.
Results: Co-exposed SP/LD rats showed significant (P < 0.05) suppression in the levels of LD induced –elevated urea, creatinine, MDA, MCV, retics%, and caspaes-3 over-expression, in contrast, they evoked significant elevation in LD-induced depleting GSH, SOD, IgG, IgM, hypo-proteinemia, hypo-albuminemia, hypo-gamma-globulinemia, RBCs, Hb, PCV, MCHC, WBCs, Lymphocytes, and CD8 down-expression. Additionally, SP restored the renal histological structure near the normal.
Conclusion: SP protects from toxic immunological, hematological, and nephrotoxic impacts of LD through its powerful free radical-scavenging, antioxidant, and immunostimulant activities.
Anna Modji Basse*, Ngor Side Diagne, Soumaila Boubacar, Adjaratou Dieynabou Sow, Daniel Massi Gams, Mamadou Coumé, Ndiaga Matar Gaye, Maouly Fall, Ousmane Cissé, Mbagnick Bakhoum, Alassane Mamadou Diop, Marième Soda Diop, Moustapha Ndiaye, Kamadore Touré, and Amadou Gallo Diop
Strokes is a public health problem due to their direct annual costs relating to hospital care, related fees and their indirect annual costs linked to the consequences of remaining disability. Stroke is one of the leading causes of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Therefore, epidemiological studies in different parts of the world are needed. The overall objective of this study was to describe the epidemiology of stroke of patients received at the neurology unit of the Retirement Care Center of Dakar in IPRES. It was a retrospective study conducted from January 2010 to April 2016, using patient’s medical files. Among 1400 consulted patients, 275 (19.6%) were enrolled in our study. The mean age was 71.8 ± 8.7 years old (extremes: 43-101) with a male predominance (66.2%). Concerning the brain CT-scan, 243 patients (88.4%) presented cerebral infarct. The main risk factors were high blood pressure HBP (80%), diabetes (17.1%) and history of stroke (14.2%). Frequent complications encountered were epilepsy (11.5%) and vascular dementia (8.7%), motor disability (6.5%) and stroke recurrence (6%). Approximately 22 deaths have been noted giving a lethality rate of 12.02%. Most patients (54,44%) experienced clinical improvement. Stroke represents a major public health problem. It is therefore necessary to fight against stroke by early diagnosis and management of risk factors including HBP, especially among the elderly.
Background: Maternal Toxoplasma gondii infection during pregnancy can cause significant morbidity and mortality in the developing fetuses. But there is a little consensus about screening during pregnancy and the test used to establish a Toxoplasmosis diagnosis are complex.
Objective: The objective is to determine the seropositivity rate of Toxoplasma gondii IgG/ IgM in maternal and fetal compartment and compare the fetal Toxoplasma gondii IgM result with polymerase-chain-reaction test (PCR) result.
Setting: The outpatient of Prenatal Diagnosis and Therapy Centre laboratory of a University Tertiary Care Centre in Lagos.
Design: A retrospective study.
Method and Material: Prenatal Diagnosis Test including ultrasonography, maternal blood screening for Toxoplasma gondii IgG/IgM, amniocentesis and fetal blood sampling were performed in n =398 patients referred to rule out present or past Toxoplasma gondii infection. Amniocentesis was performed in 70 (78.65%) cases including a set of twin and cordocentesis in 19(21.35%) cases. The results obtained from a Toxoplasma gondii IgM positivity in Amniotic fluid and Cord blood were compared with the result of the PCR test on the 17 Toxoplasma gondii IgM positive in amniotic fluid and 5 Toxoplasma gondii IgM positive in cord blood. Congenital infection was found in 22 (24.72%) cases out of the 89 patients with IgG/IgM Toxoplasma gondiisero positivity. The PCR was positive in 20 (90.90%) out of 22 cases.
Conclusion: Prenatal diagnosis using ultrasound, amniocentesis, cordocentesis, serology testing and PCR is relatively safe, reliable and accurate. It must be done by experienced personnel.