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  • ISSN: 2333-6668
    Early Online
    Volume 5, Issue 4
    Short Communication
    Grant T. McQuate* and Nicanor J. Liquido
    There are many tephritid fruit fly species worldwide, a number of which pose a threat of introduction and establishment in new areas where they had not previously been present. Tephritid fruit fly larvae feeding in fruits and vegetables can ruin fruits and vegetables for local consumption as well as create concern for risk of introducing fly species to new areas through produce shipments. Using recently updated provisional host lists developed for 11 tephritid fruit fly species that have previously invaded, or have potential to invade, the U.S.A., 99 plant families, and 330 plant genera, are identified which include plant species for which natural field infestation has been documented. Although fruit fly species vary considerably in the range of host plants that they can infest, natural field infestation for one species, the oriental fruit fly (Bactrocera dorsalis), has been documented in 76 plant families. Knowledge of the host status of different fruits and vegetables is needed in assessing the risk of fruit fly species in imported and exported fruit and vegetable commodities and for developing systems approaches and other mitigation measures to facilitate global trade.
    Research Article
    Zaw KoLatt*, Yang Yaodong and Li Jing
    The coding region of CnFatB1, CnFatB2, and CnFatB3 of coconut was cloned in E.coli DH5a by heat shock method using pMD18-T. After identifying validated positive clones, FatB gene family was sequenced. The nucleotide sequence of CnFatB1 showed 99 % similarity to C.nucifera acyl-ACP thioesterase FatB1, CnFatB2 showed 97% similarity to C. nucifera acyl-ACP thioesterase FatB2 and CnFat3 showed 98% similarity to C. nucifera acyl-ACP thioesterase FatB3 respectively. Expressed vector was constructed by ligating CnFatB1, CnFatB2 and CnFatB3 to linearized pCAMBIA1302 and transformed into E.coli by heat shock. Moreover, expression vector was also transformed into Agrobacterium tumefaciens GV3103. Potential colonies harboring FatB genes were screened by colony PCR, and confirmed by using expression vector as template for PCR and by enzyme digestion using BglII and BstEII. All results showed that CnFatB1, CnFatB2 and CnFatB3 were in expected size.
    Khaiyam MO, Faruq AN, Chowdhury MSM, Hossain MI, and Ganapati RK*
    The study was conducted in major 20 maize growing districts of Bangladesh for analysis of maize diseases. In this study, twenty farmers per district were interviewed through pretested questionnaires for collecting data on maize diseases and diseased sample were collected for identifying causal organism. Isolations of causal organism were done in the M.S. laboratory, Department of Plant Pathology, Sher-e-Bangla Agricultural University, Dhaka. The major and minor diseases were determined by observing the prevalence of diseases in the field and opinion expressed by the farmer. Considering the opinion of the farmers and field observations the 21 diseases of maize were identified including seedling blight, stalk rot, root rot, sheath blight, sheath rot, ear rot, bacterial leaf blight, may disleaf blight, Brown spot, tarcicum leaf blight, gray leaf spot, sugarcane mosaic, downy mildew, maize streak, maize stripe, maize dwarf mosaic, anthracnose, cob rot, store grain rot, cob sheath rot and cob sheath blight. The prevalent major diseases were stalk rot, leaf spot, root rot, cob rot, sheath blight, sheath rot, cob sheath blight, cob sheath rot, leaf blight, bacterial leaf blight, maize dwarf mosaic virus, corn stunt, leaf virus, maize streak virus. Seedling and reproductive stages were found more vulnerable to diseases. There was a positive and high degree of relationship among insect pest and disease incidence with weed infestation.The probable sources of maize diseases were seed borne diseases from outside of the country (cross boundary), imported hybrid seeds and infested soil. According to the opinion of the participants, proper training on quarantine diseases, improvement of quarantine laboratory and strengthening of quarantine law could be the best way for improvement of quarantine disease situation of maize.
    Ankur Agarwal*
    Several ornamental potted plant species have the ability to absorb pollutants and purify indoor air. The present study was aimed at to select best plant for pot transplantation in the cold areas of army installations. As diurnal variations in the temperature are high in these cold high altitude areas even in the indoor environment, plants were evaluated for their photosynthetic response under these conditions along with their oxygen releasing potential during light and dark conditions. Effect of temperature levels (10, 15, 20 and 25C) and CO2 levels (400, 420 and 450 ppm) were studied on net photosynthesis and transpiration rate in three indoor plants viz., spider plant (Chlorophytum comosum), dracaena (Dracaena fragrans) and snake plant (Sansevieria trifasciata). Decrease in photosynthetic as well as transpiration rate of these indoor plants was recorded with decrease in temperature from ambient (25C) to 10C. At 10C, photosynthetic rate of Dracaena reduced to 1/7th of ambient whereas in case of snake and spider plants it was near to half only. Even though snake plant maintained the good photosynthetic rate (~5 umol/m2/s). Small increase in CO2 levels was not detrimental to photosynthetic efficiency of indoor plants even at temperatures lower than ambient. At 10C, snake plant exhibited the maximum transpiration rate (0.163 mmol/m2/s). Among the three tested plants, Snake plant exhibited better oxygen releasing potential during both light and dark period.
    Research Note
    Ebigwai JK*
    The need for rapid, reliable and accurate species identification is one if the goal of taxonomy. This is often achieved by the use of morphological characters. Regrettably, it is often fraught with unreliability. The application of numerical taxonomy has contributed to solving this challenge. Field identification of the five Vernonia species in Nigeria is very challenging. This study applied quantitative measurements of the leaf length, leaf width, petiole length, inter nodal length, twig length, length of mid rib, length of lateral nerves, and width of intra marginal nerves on thirty replicates per each of the five species to confirm significant differences. The species were grown in controlled environment and use of line thread and hand lens was used. The result showed that significant difference among all the species using leaf length existed with a minimum of 102.4 leaves from an individual plant was measured. In the same vein, the study showed that Leaf width was able to separate V. cinerea, length of twig was able to differentiate V. thompsoniana, length of mid rib was able to separate V. amygdalina while petiole length was able to differentiate V. conferta from others. With the exception of leaf length, no other character was able to discriminate V. colorata from others.
    Wentao Sheng*, Xuewen Chai, Yousheng Rao, Xutang, Tu, and Shangguang Du
    Asparagus (Asparagus officinalis L.) is a horticultural homology of medicine and food with health care. The entire chloroplast (cp) genome of asparagus was sequenced with Hiseq4000 platform. The complete cp genome maps a circular molecule of 156,699bp built with a quadripartite organization: two inverted repeats (IRs) of 26,531bp, separated by a large single copy (LSC) sequence of 84,999bp and a small single copy (SSC) sequence of 18,638bp. A total of 112 genes comprising of 78 protein-coding genes, 30 tRNAs and 4 rRNAs were successfully annotated, 17 of which included introns. The identity, number and GC content of asparagus cp genes were similar to those of other asparagus species genomes. Analysis revealed 81 simple sequence repeat (SSR) loci, most composed of A or T, contributing to a bias in base composition. A maximum likelihood phylogenomic evolution analysis showed that asparagus was closely related to Polygonatum cyrtonema that belonged to the genus Asparagales. The availability of the complete cp genome sequence of asparagus provides valuable information for chloroplast genetic engineering and phylogenetic analyses in Asparagales.
    Review Article
    Salwa Harzalli Jebara*, Imen Challougui Fatnassi, Souhir Abdelkrim Ayed, Omar Saadani, Manel Chiboub, Ghassen Abid, and Moez Jebara
    Heavy metals (HMs) pollution of soils is an environmental problem which had negative impact on agriculture and human health. In this review, we focused on the use of legumes co-inoculated by HMs tolerant plant growth promoting bacteria (PGPB) in phytoremediation of HMs contaminated soils.
    Legume-HMs resistant PGPB symbiosis is an eco-friendly approach for phytoremediation of HMs contaminated soils, since it provides additional N-compounds to the soil by symbiotic nitrogen fixation(SNF) through nodule of rhizobia, in addition, PGPB were very effective and possessed plant growth promoting (PGP) traits such as solubilization of phosphate, production of phytohormones and siderophores which induced plant growth, as well as changing bioavailability of HMs in soil through various mechanisms such as bioaccumulation, chelation, acidification, protonation, precipitation and complexation.
    HMs stress induced a wide range of physiological and biochemical tolerance mechanisms such as the expression of metal binding proteins involved in chelation and HMs transporting proteins employed in active transport of ligand-metal complex into vacuole such as Glutathion GSH, Phytochelatins PCs, Metallothionin MTs, organic acid and amino acid HMs contamination caused generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in plant organs that causes oxidative stress. Plants respond by activation of enzymatic and non enzymatic antioxidant defense system suggesting that certain of them could be markers of HMs tolerance.
    HMs tolerant PGPB improve the performance of phytoremediation in legumes either by reducing HMs accumulation in the aerial part of plants and its enhancing to roots and nodules in phytostabilization process, or by increasing the uptake of HMs in plant organ and their translocation to the aerial parts in phytoextraction approach. So, selection of suitable resistant PGPB and legumes species for an efficient symbiosis in phytoremediation can be developed.
    However, each contaminated ecosystem should be considered for their specificity, which presents the main difficulty for large spectre PGPB biofertilizer development.
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