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  • ISSN: 2333-6668
    Volume 2, Issue 3
    Research Article
    Ebrahim Alinia Ahandani1*, Hadi Darzi Ramandi2, Jannat Sarmad3, Majid Asadi Samani4, Alimohammad Yavari5, Reza Alinia Ahandani6
    Abstract: In this study, the genetic relatedness of 15 walnut accessions adapted to the Lahijan region of Guilan province, Iran was analyzed by morphological characters. The traits like growth habit, leafing date, content of male flower, nut yield, nut weight, kernel weight, kernel percent, hard shell thickness, nut length, and nut thickness. The coefficient of genetic diversity obtained for nut yield was high, indicating high diversity of the samples under study for this trait. The association and correlation between the traits in most cases were significant at a=0.01 and a=0.05. Simple correlation analysis showed that nut yield had significant and positive correlation with weight of the nut, the weight and the length of the kernel and the thickness of hard shell (r= 0.762, 0.758, 0.558, respectively). Also, the association between nut yield and hard shell thickness was negative and significant (r=-0.741). Genetic diversity was assessed between and within accessions using statistical analyses including Coefficients of Variation (CV), Principal Component Analysis (PCA) and Hierarchical Cluster Analysis (HCA). The results obtained from cluster analysis placed the accessions in three separate groups. Principal component analysis indicated that the first and second components explained 69.6% of all variance. This grouping was completely consistent with cluster analysis. In addition, the results indicated high diversity based on the morphologic indices, which requires greater, closer attention to the region's native walnuts for subsequent breeding programmes.
    Ercan Ozkaynak1*, Fatma Yuksel2 and Nurten Erust2
    Abstract: The aim of the research was to determine the effects of melon and watermelon fruit extracts and low agar concentrations on in vitro propagated plants of potato. In this research, melon and watermelon fruits were used as experimental material. The plant traits such as leaf growth, root development, plant growth , plant vigour, plant height, number of nodes per plant, internode length and plant height were measured and evaluated after 30 days incubation period. One of the most important plant characteristic for in vitro potato propagation was number of nodes per plant which was obtained for the medium MS + 0.5% melon flesh with seeds + 20 g/l sucrose + 5 g/l agar. There was a significant relationship between number of nodes per plant and fresh weight and plant height. Potato plants grown on media with 20% melon flesh + 3 g/l agar and 0.5% melon flesh with seed and 2% sucrose + 5g/l agar as a carbon sources had equal plant growth characters compared to using medium with 3% sucrose. Melon extract media were well capable in performing optimum plant growth and development specially an increasing the number of nodes per plant (a fundamental of propagation rate). Hence, it was concluded that the combination of low concentration of agar and melon extract in the solid medium could offer a good supporting surface for potato micropropagation.
    Review Article
    Ana Cristina Miranda Brasileiro*, Ana Claudia Guerra Araujo, Soraya Cristina Leal-Bertioli, Patricia Messenberg Guimarães
    Abstract: This review focus on Arachis functional and structural genomic studies, and their application in peanut improvement via plant transformation, that constitutes one of the most promising strategies to advance the introgression and modulation of important traits which can be translated into crop gain.
    Zerihun Tadele*
    Abstract: Food security is the main concern in Africa as the production and productivity of crops are under continuous threat. Indigenous crops also known as orphan- or as underutilized- crops provide key contributions to food security under the present scenario of increasing world population and changing climate. Hence, these crops which belong to the major categories of cereals, legumes, fruits and root crops play a key role in the livelihood of the resource-poor farmers and consumers since they perform better than the major world crops under extreme soil and climate conditions prevalent in the continent. These indigenous crops have the major advantage that they fit well into the general socio-economic and ecological context of the region. However, despite their huge importance, African crops have generally received little attention by the global scientific community. With the current production systems, only a fraction of yield potential was achieved for most of these crops. In order to devise strategies towards boosting crop productivity in Africa, the current production constraints should be investigated and properly addressed. Key traits known to increase productivity and/or improve nutrition and diverse conventional and modern crop improvement techniques need to be implemented. Commitments in the value-chain from the research, production, marketing to distribution of improved seeds are required by relevant national and international institutions as well as African governments to promote food security in a sustainable manner. The review also presents major achievements and suggestions for stakeholders interested in African agriculture.
    Short Communication
    Kenji Takeuchi1, Fumiaki Ito2* and Phuong Thien Thuong3
    Abstract: Lung cancer is the most common fatal malignancy among all cancers worldwide, and non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) accounts for 85% of all lung cancers. Existing therapies for NSCLC include tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) such as gefitinib and erlotinib, which target the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) tyrosine kinase. In this report, we studied the anti-proliferative activity of tanshinone IIA (Tan IIA) from Radix Salvia miltiorrhiza against gefitinib-sensitive and -resistant NSCLC cells. Tan IIA effectively inhibited the growth of both gefitinib-sensitive NSCLC cells harboring the EGFR mutation of exon 19 (PC-9) and gefitinib-resistant NSCLC cells (H1650, H358, AY-01, and A549). We also identified another type of NSCLC cells (PC-14), which were resistant to both TKI and Tan IIA. H1650 and AY-01 harbor an EGFR mutation of exon 19, but are resistant to gefitinib. H358 and A549 harbor a KRAS mutation but no EGFR mutation. Therefore, Tan IIA is a candidate compound for the development of anti-cancer drugs targeting a variety of gefitinib-sensitive and -resistant NSCLC.
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