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  • ISSN: 2333-6668
    Volume 2, Issue 4
    Short Communication
    Pacioni G1, Ragnelli AM1, Aimola P1, Leonardi M1, Marinucci D1, Roth-Bejerano N2 and Kagan-Zur V2*
    Abstract: The ability of mycelial strains of Tuberborchii and T. melanosporum to produce either ecto- or endomycorrhiza with two clones of transformed roots of Cistusincanus was studied in vitro in relation to nitrogen and phosphate concentrations in the culture medium. While differing in their response to the Cistus clones at particular P and N concentrations, both Tuber species displayed the ability to form endomycorrhiza and pseudo-ectomycorrhiza without Hartig net; however, typical ectomycorrhiza with mantle and Hartig net was not obtained. These results support the notion that Tuber can produce different types of mycorrhiza depending on external conditions.
    Masaru Niitsu1, Koichi Takao1, Yosuke Kato1, Eimi Nagase1, Takemitsu Furuchi1 and Koei Hamana2*
    Abstract: Four terminal-N-methylated polyamines, N1-methylputrescine, N1,N4-dimethylputrescine, N1-methylhomospermidine and N1,N9-dimethylhomospermidine were detected and identified as a endogenous minor polyamine in the mature root of a Solanum crop plant, tomato, by GC and GC-MS. This is the first report on the natural occurrence of N1,N4-dimethylputrescine and the two N-methylated homospermidine(s).
    Mini Review
    Michael WH Evangelou1* and Annabelle Deram2
    Abstract: Phytoremediation, the use of plants and associated microorganisms to eliminate environmental damage or threats posed by environmental pollution, never managed to live up to its expectations, because of long-term restrictions in land use. The recently developed phytomanagement bypasses this drawback by incorporating the aspect of economic revenue production into phytoremediation. Phytomanagement regards contaminated soils not as a problem but as an economic opportunity and a valuable resource that should be used sustainably. The product variety ranges from timber and pulp, over fodder and fertilizers up to pharmaceuticals. Phytomanagement could thus not only offer ecological benefits but offer also economic relief to communities that live near contaminated sites. Plant research could assist in achieving that goal by identifying new marketable plant species, by developing new crop management schemes (e.g. intercropping) and by developing new transgenic plants.
    Mini Review
    Olufunmilayo E. Ajayi1*, Arthur G. Appel2 and Henry Y. Fadamiro2
    Abstract: Plant essential oils and their components are used to protect stored grains against insect pests. Cereals and grain legumes are stored for future use as food and seed for further propagation. Phytotoxicity of four essential oil components, carvacrol, 1-8-cineole, eugenol, and (-)-menthone, to cowpea Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp was tested at 10 and 20 µl/L doses. Effects of these oil components on seed germination and seedling growth parameters (i.e., shoot length, number of leaves, moisture content, root-shoot ratio, root length, root volume, root surface area and length of root hairs) were determined at 1, 2, 3, and 6 months after fumigation. Differences in germination and seedling growth between fumigated seeds and unfumigated seeds (control) were used as indices of phytotoxicity of the oil components. Generally, phytotoxicity of the oil components to cowpea seeds was dependent on dose, oil components, and storage period. Seed germination and seedling growth were negatively affected by carvacrol, 1-8-cineole, and eugenol at 2 and 3 months after treatment. 1-8-cineole was the most toxic while (-) - menthone was the least toxic component to cowpea seeds, irrespective of dose and storage period. Higher germination and seedlings growth of 1-8-cineole-fumigated seeds were obtained at 6 months compared to 2 and 3 months, suggesting possible biodegradation or degassing processes. This study showed that carvacrol, 1-8-cineole, and eugenol reduced cowpea germination and seedling growth. In addition, germination of seeds fumigated with essential oil components and presumably natural essential oils, does not imply that the germinated seeds are viable.
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