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  • ISSN: 2333-6668
    Volume 3, Issue 1
    Research Article
    Papa Saliou Sarr1*, Shunsei Fujimoto2 and Takeo Yamakawa3
    Abstract: Cowpea is a legume crop that fixes atmospheric nitrogen with soil rhizobia. This study investigated the effects of nitrogen supply and light intensity on N2 fixation and growth of rhizobia-inoculated cowpea. The hydroponic experiment designed to evaluate the response of cowpea inoculated with three Bradyrhizobium strains (TSC7, TSB2, TTC9) under different N concentrations (0, 1, 2.5, 5, 7.5, 10 mM) showed that regardless to the used inoculant, N = 2.5 mM inhibit the nodulation and nitrogen fixation of cowpea at early stages (2-4 WAT). While the three strains similarly affect cowpea nodulation at 2 WAT, at later stages (4-6 WAT), the nodulation phenotype varied among them. At 6 WAT, N = 2.5 mM did not repress the nodulation of TSC7- and TTC9-inoculated but rather improved it. This study shows that the supply of 1 mM N is beneficial in stimulating the nitrogen fixation of TTC9- and TSB2-inoculated cowpea, and at later stages, the nitrogen fixation inhibitory effect of N 2.5 mM and N 5 mMis decreased. In the second experiment, conditions of100, 75, 50and 25%light intensities of the natural light were set up in a glasshouse to study their effect on N2 fixation and growth of cowpea inoculated with B. yuanmingense DTC8, TSC7, and TTC9 strains. The 100% and 75% light intensities led to better cowpea growth and production. The study shows that when the light intensity is decreased to 75% of the natural light (about 535µ molm-2 sec-1PPFD), cowpea seed production and nitrogen content is improved. Appropriate lightning would therefore greatly improve the quantity and quality (protein) of cowpea seeds.
    Sandya R. Kesoju1, Bahman Shafii2*, Lawrence W. Lass3, William J. Price2 and Timothy S. Prather3
    Abstract: Rush skeletonweed (Chondrilla juncea L.: Asteraceae) is a deep-rooted perennial invasive plant that infests well-drained, sandy-textured soils commonly found in the mountain foothills and canyon grasslands of the Pacific Northwest United States. The species can spread locally through rhizomes and over longer distances by wind, with its pappus-bearing seed. Our objective was to produce a dispersal model that would predict long-range movement and aid land managers in their efforts to find new populations of rush skeletonweed. A study area in the arid canyon grasslands within the Salmon River Canyon, Idaho, was used to develop a wind dispersal model for rush skeletonweed. Rush skeletonweed distribution data were from ground based surveys conducted in 1996, 1999-2001, and 2003-20012. Wind maps were created with topographic information and vegetation indices in a multi-layer perceptron (MLP) network analysis to predict average wind speed and wind direction. These maps were then incorporated into a GIS network modeling algorithm to predict seed dispersal. Algorithm settings were evaluated and optimized to match predicted dispersal maps with observed dispersal patterns. Wind dispersal maps provided information about the distance and direction of rush skeletonweed movement. In the canyon grasslands of central Idaho, rush skeletonweed seed consistently moved in the general direction of the wind. Rush skeletonweed patches were found to move within a range of 4 to 12 km in an estimated time period of 5 to 12 years, suggesting that land managers should anticipate searching for susceptible plant communities within that distance from current infestations. Dispersal within the study was predicted in the north to north-east direction at a rate of 500 to 1000 m/yr. Knowledge about dispersal distance and direction, and how they are modified by terrain, will be critical to land managers who seek to limit further expansion of invasive rush skeletonweed within Idaho and adjacent states.
    Chinelo A Ezeabara*, Lovina A Orachu, Okeke CU, Chinyere V Ilodibia, Adaeze N Emeka and Ekwealor KU
    Abstract: Phytochemical, proximate and mineral compositions of leaves and stems of Stachytarpheta cayennensis (L.C. Rich.) Vahl and S. indica (Linn.) Vahl were evaluated using standard methods and compared. Protein, fat and minerals as well as certain bioactive agents: alkaloid, flavonoid, saponin, sterol and tannin were detected in various concentrations. Higher concentrations of fat and protein as well as all the micronutrients were present in the stems of S. indica. Concentrations of alkaloid were higher in the leaves and stems of S. cayennensis where as higher level of protein was detected in the leaves. Greater level of hydrogen cyanide was found in the leaves of the two plants. Data were considered statistically significant at P=0.05. However, high concentration of hydrogen cyanide, an acute toxin, detected in both the leaves and stems of the plants render them inedible without proper processing. Thus, the utilization of these plants in ethno medicine as food and drug could be fatal; therefore, it is highly discouraged. Nonetheless, the bioactive compounds and nutrients could be extracted for development of drugs and food supplements.
    Nasir Khan M*, Mobin M, Zahid bin Khorshid and Abdulkhaliq Nourabbas
    Abstract: The present investigation was carried out to evaluate the response of two groups of seaweeds of red sea to prevailing environmental conditions. Total four seaweeds were selected from two groups viz. (i) Red seaweeds (Rhodophyta): Gracilaria salicornia (Gs) and Digenea simplex (Ds); and (ii) Green seaweeds (Chlorophyta): Ulva reticulata (Ur) and Chaetomorpha linum (Cl). The performance of seaweeds was assessed in terms of photosynthetic pigments (Chl a, Chl b, total Chl content, Chl a: b ratio, phycocyanin and phycoerythrin), thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS), H2O2 content, accumulation of osmolytes (proline: Pro and glycine betaine: GB), activities of antioxidant enzymes (superoxide dismutase: SOD; peroxidase: POX; and catalase: CAT), and total protein and carbohydrates. The results show that green seaweeds contain higher level of all the photosynthetic pigments except carotenoids, phycocyanin and phycoerythrin which were higher in red seaweeds. Regarding activities of antioxidant enzymes, red seaweeds show higher activities of POX and CAT except SOD. Concentration of Pro, GB and total protein and carbohydrate were also higher in red seaweeds. Taken together, all the four studied seaweeds show an immense line of variation in their strategy of endurance under similar environmental conditions, but red seaweeds possess higher levels of antioxidant enzymes and osmolytes, thus better adapted to changing climatic conditions.
    Shaghayegh Amirijavid1*, Milad Chizari2 and Mohammadjavad Sadrzadeh2
    Abstract: Phytoremediation is a method of choice for remediates any pollutant from nature. This nascent technology has already undergone successful pilot study and it is time to find more popular and useful plants and bring them to the field to clear the nature. Alfalfa and tomato as a part of traditional culture of many countries could be proper candidates for this purpose. EtBr as a DNA staining dye is one of common tools of molecular biologist. But, the hazardous effects of them (in use or waste) make a new effort to remove safely them after usage. This study examine the alfalfa and tomato`s role in absorbance of EtBr and the subsequence of such accumulation. Seeds of alfalfa and tomato were transplanted and after 23 days in which they grown in appropriate size, we started to inoculate them with several concentration of EtBr. After 10th and 17th day the samples were collected and the analysis significantly demonstrated the diverse effect of EtBr on short and long term on them. In summary, EtBr divided the plants growth to two main phases, before day 10, increasing growth and after day 10, decreasing growth. Increasing roots number and diameter in contrast to decreasing the length of shoots were the special efforts of our research.
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