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  • ISSN: 2333-6668
    Volume 3, Issue 2
    Review Article
    Monira Pervin1, Yu Koyama2, Mamoru Isemura1* and Yoriyuki Nakamura1
    Abstract: Lectins are proteins or glycoprotein's of non-immune origin that exhibit specific binding affinity for the carbohydrate moiety of glycol-conjugates. Several plant lectins have been shown to induce cell death in cancer cells, suggesting that these molecules may have applications in cancer treatments. Cancer cells are known to express and/or secrete glycol-conjugates with an aberrant glycan structure. Thus, lectins may detect such changes, leading to their use in cancer diagnosis and cancer-specific treatment. Mistletoe lectins are representative of an anticancer drug target, and lentil lectin has been shown to have diagnostic applications in hepatocellular carcinoma. In this review, we describe recent progress in lectin researches, with special emphasis on the applications of plant lectins in human cancer diagnosis and therapy.
    Rahul Agarwal1 and Jitendra Narayan2*
    Abstract: The existence of diverse communities of plant species, including crops is crucial for maintaining the ecological balance between human kind and environment. Their existence also ensures the continuous food supply to human and animals. Therefore, it is critical to use modern biotechnological techniques in breeding scheme to increase the productivity of the economical crops and plants so we can able to continuously feed the billions of organism in this planet. We have seen tremendous progress in the field of bioinformatics, genomics and sequencing recentlyand their potential to improve the economical and agronomic traits in various plants. Agriculture bioinformatics is about using latest genomic advancement, and bioinformatics tools and databases to enrich scientific community with genetic knowledge to yield drought, disease and insect resistant crops and other plant species. With current sequencing technologies, it is possible to sequence thousands of plant species together and then assemble those individually using de novo genome assemblers. Availability of genomic information make possible to trace candidate genes and mutationsassociated with particularcomplex trait. Methylation and microRNAs data make possible to disclose epigenetic regulation of candidate genes. This article reviews how current scenario in agriculture related research restructured entirely under influence of tremendous growth in bioinformatics and omics technology.
    Mini Review
    Jiujiang Yu1*, Wayne M. Jurick1 and Joan W. Bennett2
    Abstract: Mold-produced secondary metabolites that are toxic and carcinogenic are termed mycotoxins. They are biosynthesized in a number of fungi, mainly from species in the Aspergillus, Fusarium and Penicillium genera. Mycotoxins contaminate agricultural commodities such as grains, fruits and nuts. Due to their toxic and carcinogenic properties, they pose a serious health hazard to animals and humans and cause staggering economic losses to growers, packers, processors, and consumers annually. Research on major mycotoxins, such as aflatoxins, using molecular biological and genetic tools has uncovered the genes, gene clusters, biosynthetic pathways, and genetic regulatory mechanisms involved in their formation. The field of genomics has empowered scientists with a high throughput tool to study mycotoxin biosynthesis and regulatory networks with a new level of scientific rigor. In this paper, the current status of genomic investigations on mycotoxigenic fungi has been summarized in order to better understand their biosynthesis, genetic regulation, genome structure, and evolutionary aspects. In addition, the advantages, challenges, and future perspectives in studying mycotoxins are discussed. The information and knowledge contained in this chapter may guide possible solutions to abate mycotoxin contamination of agricultural commodities for human consumption and animal feed.
    Research Article
    Kousuke Sagawa1, Ryota Tsuchihashi1, Kiyoshi Yoshida1, Daisuke Nakano1, Masafumi Okawa1, Junei Kinjo1* and Toshihiro Nohara2
    Abstract: Kudzu (Pueraria lobata) is widely considered a weed in the USA. However, the roots and flowers of kudzu are commercially available as crude Oriental medicines. Since the leaves of kudzu contain similar phytochemicals, kudzu leaves seem to be a promising health food or herbal supplement. Therefore, we investigated the variation in amounts of phytochemicals in kudzu leaves during growth using a high performance liquid chromatographcoupled to an evaporative light scattering detector. The amount of total saponin obtained from collected kudzu leaves from May to January was fairly consistent (0.10%-0.19%). In contrast, the amount of total flavonoid varied from 0.78% (June 12) to 2.21% (October 23). The increase in content of flavonol glycosides was larger than that of isoflavone glycosides. Interestingly, the amount of quercetin glycosides gradually increased from May to November, whereas the amount of kaempferolglycosides did not change much. The total amount of phytochemicals increased until late autumn. Therefore, the most appropriate time to harvest the leaves would be late autumn, just before the leaves wither.
    Short Communication
    Ozkan Danis, Ayse Ogan*, Damla Anbar, Basak Yuce Dursun, Serap Demir and Umit Salan
    Abstract: Obesity is a strong risk factor for various diseases, such as hypertension, arteriosclerosis and diabetes. Therefore, an effective way to prevent obesity is to inhibit fat absorption from intestines. Pancreatic lipase is a key enzyme for lipid absorption. One of the approaches to reduce obesity is treatment with natural products. Many plants have been reported to inhibit lipase activity which is attributable to the presence of secondary metabolites such polyphenols, benzopyrones whose members include flavonoids, saponins, coumarins etc. are active inhibitors of pancreatic lipase. In our study using porcine pancreatic lipase, a series of plants were screened for their pancreatic lipase inhibitory activities. According to the results; green apple, green tea and avocado extracts had the highest antilipase activities. These plants based diets may be involved in weight control programs.
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