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  • ISSN: 2378-9328
    Semiparametric Spatial Autoregressive Model: A Two-Step Bayesian Approach
    Authors: Jiaqing Chen, Renfu Wang and Yangxin Huang
    Abstract: Spatial data arise frequently in econometric studies and it is a common practice to analyze such data with spatial autoregressive (SAR) models. This paper proposes a two-step Bayesian approach for inference in the semiparametric spatial autoregressive (SPSAR) model, including the cases for mixed data.
    Role of the Neighbourhood Deprivation in the Adverse Effect of Air Pollution on Congenital Abnormalities
    Authors: Maxime Jeanjean, Kihal Wahida, Cindy Padilla, Esther Kai-Chieh Chen and Severine Deguen
    Abstract: Congenital abnormalities (CAs) remain a major cause of stillbirth and neonatal mortality. The literature has shown that congenital malformations are suggested to have multifactorial determinants, including environmental exposures and socioeconomic patterns.
    Latest Articles
    Mini Review
    Ozlem Sengoren Dikis* and Tekin Yildiz
    Silicosis is a disease caused by inhaling respirable silica particles primarily composed of quartz dust and has been recognised, since the 2000s, as a human carcinogen. Chronic, accelerated and acute types of silicosis have been described. The most commonly diagnosed chronic silicosis develops after 10 or more years of exposure to relatively low dust concentrations. Silicosis leads to fibrosis and impairment of lung function. It is a preventable disease that is not easily treatable. Despite political and industrial debates, many workers worldwide are still exposed to silica dust. This review emphasizes that silicosis will continue to threaten public health in the future, if adequate preventive measures and widescale case studies of occupational silicosis are not carried out.
    Research Article
    Mariana Esposito*, Emilia Sakurai, Joel Alves Lamounier, Romero Alves Teixeira, Elido Bonomo, Camilo Adalton Mariano da Silva, and Maringela Carneiro
    Promotion and protection of breastfeeding is an important strategy in prevention of Vitamin A (Retinol) deficiency in childhood. Breast milk retinols allows us the chance to reach the maternal nutritional status and go over infant status. This study aimed to know the retinol and fat content in mature breast milk from Novo Cruzeiros population, Brazil. It was analyzes 63 samples of breast milk that belonged to 81 children. The fat content was reached by crematocrit procedure and Retinol content by HPLC. Others datas had gotten through semi-structured pre-coded questionnaires. Statistics analyses were performed non-parametric for paired samples. The median of Retinol was 0,62 g/100mL and 1,7g/100mL from breast milk before and after the infant had breastfed. The samples were considered statistically different (p<0,001) for Retinol contents and for fat contents (p<0,001). The results shows that Vitamin As content after the suck one , in each class of alimentary security, are strongly bigger than the content before suck (The Alimentary Security p=0,005; Light Unreliability p < 0,001; Moderate Unreliability p < 0,001; Deep Unreliability p< 0,001). The results suggest that the breast milk from the end of the suck provides greater retinol ingestion; breast milk before feed allows to reach The Brazilian Scale of Unreliability Alimentary. Although it is important to guide mothers to not interrupt the suck one and not to limit the manual expression only to initial breast milk.
    Noé D. Romo*, Melissa DuPont-Reyes, Deborah Fry, Melissa S. Stockwell, and Leslie L. Davidson
    Objective: Is regular exercise in urban adolescents associated with decreased violence related behaviors.
    Methods: Cross-sectional secondary analysis of a New York City public high school survey. The exercise exposure variables identified were: Exercise frequency, # sit-ups, longest run, playing on a sports team. The violence related behavior outcome variables were: Not carrying a weapon, not being in a physical fight, not being in a gang. Logistic regression analysis was used to generate odds ratios between primary exposure and outcome variables.
    Results: Females reporting higher exercise frequency had increased odds of not being in gang (2.9[1.6-5.2]). Females doing > 20sit-ups had increased odds of not carrying weapon (2.6[1.4-4.8]) and of not being in gang (2.5[1.4-4.6]). Females reporting running > 20 minutes had increased odds of not carrying weapon (2.4[1.2-4.9]) and of not being in gang (2.3[1.2-4.6]). Females reporting being on a team had increased odds of not carrying weapon (2.0[1.1-3.6]), not being in fight (1.95[1.4-2.7]) and not being in gang (2.6[1.5-4.4]). Males reporting being on a team and higher exercise frequency had increased odds of not being in a fight (1.7[1.2-2.4]) and (1.5[1.1-2.0]).
    Conclusions: Higher exercise frequency and intensity was associated with decreased violence related behaviors in females and only protective against fighting in males.
    Short Communication
    Teri Sue Smith-Jackson, Matthew Flint, Mary Brown, and Jennifer Lehmbeck
    Objective: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the frequency of eating disorder behaviors among a normal-weight, non-eating disordered population of women.
    Method: From a sample of 2430 surveys, 537 participants were selected based on inclusion criteria of being female, normal weight, having an accurate weight perception, and not having an eating disorder, both by self-report and by screening instrumentation. Paper-and-pencil cross-sectional surveys were administered to students at a university in the western United States.
    Results: Of the 537 participants, 45.6% indicated they were currently trying to lose weight. When asked if they had ever binged, vomited or taken diet pills, 20.3% responded that they had. Moreover, 9.1% of participants reported fasting, taking diet pills or vomiting within the last 30 days to lose or keep from gaining weight.
    Discussion: The rates of eating disorder behaviors were surprisingly high, given the inclusion criteria. Nearly half of the women wanted to lose weight, despite being an optimal weight and having an accurate size perception. This data shows that normal weight women are not immune to eating disorder behaviors, which may lead to more serious pathology. Some women may see eating disorder behaviors as a part of the normal dieting experience.
    Trina Aguirre*, Ann Koehler, Leeza Struwe, and Elizabeth Reifsnider
    This pilot study (n= 50 mother-child dyads) was conducted as part of the development of a childhood obesity intervention that will use bilingual, bicultural promotoras to deliver a culturally adapted promotora-to-mother Motivational Interviewing (MI) intervention to educate and support mothers of 2-5 year-old Mexican-American children in limiting their childrens low nutrient simple carbohydrate intake (LNSCI) and increasing their complex carbohydrate intake (CCI). Specifically, it evaluated the feasibility of using the Automated Self-Administered 24-hour Recall (ASA24-Kids) and biometric measures [body composition, body mass index, anthropometrics (triceps skin fold, waist circumference), lipid profiles, glucose levels, and blood pressure] to assess the effect of the intervention on childrens diet and health parameters. In addition, a subset of participants (n=10 mother-child dyads) received the MI intervention at baseline, 1, 2, and 6 months following diet assessment/biometric measurements. The biometric assessments revealed that 26% of children were overweight or obese (BMI percentile) and prevalence did not differ among genders. Thirty-nine percent (n=18) of these children were normotensive, whereas, 61% (n=28) were hypertensive. The intervention section of the study demonstrated that promotoras could successfully deliver the MI intervention. Mothers MI measures of importance and readiness to change increased throughout the study; confidence in their ability to alter their childrens diet was associated with a reduction in added sugar (an important LNSC) intake. Childrens percent body fat/glucose levels also improved between baseline and 6 months. Several other dietary/biometric variables showed nonsignificant trends in the desired direction. These results support moving forward to evaluate our promotora-delivered MI intervention targeting childrens LNSCI/CCI in a fully powered study.
    Research Article
    Cristina J. Ramirez-Espejel, Teresa Juarez-Cedillo, and Annia M. Avalos-Mejia*
    Geriatric patients are the population that consumes a greater number of drugs compared to other populations, so the problems derived from their use are also more frequent. This investigation intended to estimate the prevalence and major risk factors for potential DDI among older outpatients who are treated in primary health care. The study population consisted of 384 patients over 60 years of age, who attended at least one medical consultation to the Family Medicine Unit (FMU) No. 28 of the Mexican Social Security Institute (IMSS) from November 2014 to May 2015. Potential drug drug interactions were identified using the MicromedexDrugInterac software. The number of drugs administered simultaneously ranged from 2 to 22, with an average of 8.3 3.5. 97.1% of the population presented polypharmacy. Of the polypharmacy patients, 81% had at least one potential DDI. 1,563 potential pharmacological interactions were detected, with a mean of 4.1 potential DDI per patient (95% CI 3.6-4.5). Prevalence of potential DDI in a population of older adults was 78.9%, indicating that a high proportion of outpatients treated in primary health care are exposed to at least one potential DDI. Factors found to be associated with the risk of having a potential DDI were: the number of drugs consumed the number of doctors being treated, as well as some categories of drugs. The high prevalence of potential pharmacological interactions in the elderly ambulatory patients seen at the in primary health care, might be a significant health problem but can be prevented by paying more attention to polypharmacy, the type of drugs prescribed and improving the communication between prescribers.
    Asawari Raut*, Atmaram Pawar, Kavya Shaj, and Priti Dave
    Background: Poisoning is a common medical emergency needing prompt medical interventions. The study focuses on pattern of toxic agents, drug utilization, management and outcome in poisonings reported.
    Methods: The cross sectional study was carried out on patients admitted to two urban hospitals in Pune, Maharashtra from January 2014 - March 2016.
    Results: Total 1078 cases of poisoning were reported with male (57.1%) predominance. The cases reported ranged from 8 months to 72 years old in age with a mean ( SD) 37.8 27.3. Intentional poisoning was more common (53%). Route of exposure was mostly Ingestion (72.5%) followed by Bite/Sting (26.4%), Inhalational (0.8%), Injection (0.1%) and Eye (0.1%). Household and agricultural agents (56.4%) were associated with most poisoning followed by Animal Bites and Stings (26.4%). The mortality reported was 9.7%. The management included Supportive treatment, Antidotes, and Enhanced Elimination Techniques. Supportive treatment was mainly with Gastro protective (94.3%) and Anti-Microbial (77.9%) agents. The antidote was used in 70.9% cases and mostly included Anti-Snake Venom (24.4%) followed by Atropine (21%) and Pralidoxime (18.1%). Enhanced Elimination Techniques included Gastric Lavage (76.3%), Nasogastric Aspiration (7.2%), Hemodialysis (0.1%), Activated Charcoal (4.5%) and Eye wash (0.1%).
    Conclusion: The treatment approaches were based on parameters such as route of exposure, Toxic agent involved and age of the patient. The pharmacist can play a vital role in the recommendation of the rational management plan in Poisonings.
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