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  • ISSN: 2333-7095
    Current Issue
    November/December 2013
    Volume 1, Issue 3
    Editorial
    Rachel Sparks1, and Fangyu Peng1,2,3*
    Malignant transformation of prostate epithelial cells is associated with metabolic changes, including alteration of copper metabolism. Preclinical studies demonstrated that human prostate cancer xenografts with increased 64Cu radioactivity could be visualized in vivo by positron emission tomography after intravenous injection of copper-64 chloride (64CuCl2) as a radiotracer. Altered copper metabolism holds potential as an imaging biomarker for metabolic imaging and personalized anti-copper therapy of prostate cancer.
    Research Article
    Keisuke Kiso1,2, Eku Shimosegawa1, Hiroshi Watabe3,4, Yasukazu Kanai3, Koichi Fujino1 and Jun Hatazawa1*
    Abstract:
    Purpose: For quantitation of myocardial blood flow (MBF), 2-dimensional (2D) 13N-ammonia PET has been utilized. However, most of recent PET systems operate only 3-dimensional (3D) mode, and there are no reports about normal value of MBF measured by 3D PET/CT system. In this study, we evaluated normal values of MBF and myocardial flow reserve (MFR) with 13N-ammonia by using 3D PET/CT system. Comparisons of values between the present study and previously reports with 2D PET systems were carried out.
    Materials and methods: Nine normal volunteers were enrolled. MBF of dipyridamole stress and rest were measured by 3D PET/CT with 13N-ammonia. MBF was measured by 2-compartmet model analysis, and MFR was determined as the ratio of dipyridamole/rest MBF. Finally, we assessed regional (three coronary territories) and global MBF and MFR.
    Results: Average MBF at dipyridamole/rest were LAD:3.42 ± 0.73/1.26 ± 0.22, LCX:4.23 ± 1.17/1.20 ± 0.22, RCA:3.68 ± 0.89/1.35 ± 0.82, global:3.69 ± 0.83/1.26 ± 0.31 (mL/min/g), respectively. Average MFR was LAD: 2.74 ± 0.43, LCX:3.54 ± 0.72, RCA:3.20 ± 1.22, global:2.98 ± 0.59, respectively. Those results were almost similar with previous reports with 2D 13N-ammonia PET. However, higher rest MBF and heterogeneity of hyperemic MBF were observed.
    Conclusions: Normal values of MBF and MFR with 3D 13N-ammonia PET were almost comparable with the values evaluated by conventional 2D PET. However, it needs further considerations to improve heterogeneity of hyperemic MBF and higher rest MBF.
    Akira Taguchi1,2*, Yae Iwamoto2, Shinichiro Yamada2, Noriyuki Sugino1, Hiroko Kuroiwa1, Keiichi Uchida1,2 and Yukihito Higashi3
    Abstract:
    Introduction: Aortic calcification seen on lateral radiographs might be an independent predictor of osteoporosis in the elderly. It is not clear whether the presence of carotid artery calcification (CAC) on dental panoramic radiographs (DPRs) is associated with osteoporosis. We examined the association between CAC on DPRs and a history of osteoporosis diagnosis without prevalent fractures.
    Methods: Of 1132 Japanese patients (432 males, 700 females) age ≥ 50 years who underwent digital DPR to diagnose dental disease at our university hospital between 2007 and 2012, 542 (237 males, 305 females) participated in this study. The mean±SD age of the subjects was 68.4±7.7 years. One experienced oral and maxillofacial radiologist identified the presence of CAC. Information on subject lifestyles and disease histories was obtained using a structured questionnaire and confirmed in a telephone interview and from medical records. An independent t-test, chi square test, or Fisher’s exact test was used to compare differences in osteoporosis diagnosis without prevalent fractures, age, gender, body mass index, history of smoking, diabetes mellitus, and rheumatoid arthritis between subjects with and without CAC. Logistic regression analysis was used to calculate the odds ratio of having a history of osteoporosis diagnosis without prevalent fractures in subjects with CAC after adjusting for the covariates.
    Results: Subjects with CAC had a significantly higher risk of being diagnosed with osteoporosis without prevalent fractures than did subjects without CAC (P = 0.03). The crude odds ratio of having a history of an osteoporosis diagnosis without prevalent fractures in subjects with CAC was 2.45 (95% confidence interval [CI] 1.06–5.62). The odds ratio after adjusting for covariates was 2.31 (95% CI 0.91–5.90).
    Conclusions: The CAC incidentally detected on DPRs might be useful for identifying elderly males and females who should be referred for further examinations regarding osteoporosis.
    Minireview
    Nadeem Khan1,4, Huagang Hou1,4, Eunice Y. Chen2, Lesley A. Jarvis3,4, Philip E. Schaner3,4, Benjamin B. Williams1,4, Harold M. Swartz1,4 and Periannan Kuppusamy1,4*
    Abstract:
    Tumor hypoxia (pO2; partial pressure of oxygen < 10 – 15 mmHg) plays a critical role in radio-resistance and promotes the development of aggressive tumor phenotypes. Furthermore, tumor hypoxia is dynamic and varies with tumor type, stage and as a consequence of ionizing radiation and other therapies. In spite of its profound effect on treatment outcome, tumor pO2 has been sub-optimally exploited in radiation oncology. Current radiotherapy plans do not take into account specific temporal changes in individual tumor pO2 levels due to lack of appropriate oximetry techniques, and therefore potentially may be suboptimal. In particular, hypofractionated treatments are increasingly used with large doses (4 - 20 Gy) of ionizing radiation that may have different effects on the levels of oxygen in individual tumors during the course of treatment. Real-time monitoring of tumor pO2 might make it feasible to improve the outcome by scheduling fractions at times of increased tumor pO2. Such tumor oxygen guided treatment protocols can only be accomplished by oximetry techniques that can provide accurate serial measurements of tumor pO2 throughout the course of therapy.
    We have pioneered in vivo EPR oximetry using micro-particulate oxygen-sensing probes for real-time monitoring of tissue pO2 in superficial (≤10 mm) as well as deep-sited tumors, repeatedly and accurately, for clinical applications. Our goal is to improve treatment outcome by providing the information about dynamic tumor oxygen levels so that irradiations can be scheduled when the tumors are better oxygenated either with or without oxygen enhancing interventions e. g. pre-irradiation, carbogen (2 - 5% CO2 balance O2) inhalation, hyperthermia, and anti-angiogenic treatment. Temporal changes in tumor pO2 can also be used as a prognostic marker to predict efficacy, identify responders and non-responders, and individualize therapy. An overview of in vivo EPR oximetry, pre-clinical results and the current status of clinical oximetry are briefly described to highlight the potential advantages of EPR oximetry in radiation oncology.
    Clinical Image
    Seda Ozbek*
    A 78-year-old woman complaining of chest pain and a sudden increase in breathlessness was admitted to the emergency department. She showed symptoms of tachycardia and dyspnea with reduced oxygen saturation (75%). Because of increasing respiratory distress, the patient was transferred to the computed tomography (CT) unit in order to evaluate the possibility of acute vascular disorders such as aortic dissection and pulmonary embolism.
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