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  • ISSN: 2379-0571
    Volume 7, Issue 3
    Research Article
    King D*, Hume P, Clark T, and Gissane C
    Objectives: To determine head impact characteristics for amateur rugby union players.
    Design: Descriptive cohort study.
    Methods: A total of 20,687 head impacts greater than 10g over a 2013 amateur senior rugby union season of matches for one team of 38 players. Analyses by matches home/away, won/lost and first/second season halves. Additional analyses by player position and head impact position.
    Results: There were more significantly impacts for matches played away (124 ± 218), matches won (111 ±178) and matches in the first half of the competition season (147 ± 220). Front-row forwards (FRF) recorded more impacts to the head at away games (RR: 1.5 [95% CI: 1.5-1.6]; p<0.0001) compared with home games. The front of the head recorded a longer impact duration (t(2158)=11.2; p<0.0001; d=0.38), and had a higher resultant PLAg (χ2(1)=86.6; p<0.0001; z=-9.7; p<0.0001; d=0.20), PRA(rad/s2) (χ2(1)=62.4; p<0.0001; z=-8.4; p<0.0001; d=0.80) and RWECP (χ2(1)=60.3; p<0.0001; z=-7.6; p<0.0001; d=0.09) in games won when compared with games lost.
    Conclusion: The nature of matches affected head impacts measured by an instrumented mouthguard in amateur rugby union players with more frequent and greater magnitude impacts for away, won and first half season of matches. The finding that there were far more impacts experienced by players during the first half of the season compared to the second half of the season could be related to the players level of fitness level. There were more impacts recorded to the side of the head in matches won and the first half of the season.
    Grant Sun, Kenneth Gundle, Kaytee Arnold, Alec Contag, and Dennis Crawford*
    Study Design: Cohort.
    Background: Postoperative physical therapy on the day of surgery (SDPT) for inpatient orthopaedic patients is known to improve function and reduce hospital length of stay. However, as far as we know, this has not been examined in the outpatient surgical setting.
    Objectives: We examined whether negative event rates (triage phone calls, ER (emergency room) visits) and Press Ganey satisfaction scores were different in patients receiving SDPT compared to those that did not.
    Methods: One surgeon performed 590 ambulatory shoulder or knee procedures. Patients who had significant postoperative activity restrictions and underwent surgery on Thursdays received SDPT; those undergoing surgery on Fridays did not. To determine if there was a hidden day-of-week bias, two control groups without postoperative activity restrictions also underwent surgery on Thursday or Friday.
    Results: Negative event rates did not differ based on SDPT in those with postoperative activity restrictions (0.86 vs. 0.69, respectively, p=0.29) or in those with no activity restrictions (0.40 vs 0.26, respectively, p=0.12). Press Ganey scores similarly did not differ significantly based on SDPT, with mean scores of 9.2 and 9.0, of 10, in those with postoperative activity restrictions (p=0.53).
    Conclusion: SDPT did not affect negative event rates or Press Ganey scores in patients with or without postoperative activity restrictions. This may reflect a ceiling effect, given the high baseline level of satisfaction associated with these procedures. A larger cohort and different metrics could be additional elements to identify the impact of this complementary educational method in the post-operative ambulatory setting.
    Level of Evidence: III.
    Jeremie Richard*, Loredana Marchica, William Ivoska, and Jeffrey Derevensky
    Sports-related gambling is a popular form of gambling among adolescents and adults. Although previous studies have identified general profiles for sports bettors, few studies have examined the characteristics of youth engaging in sports betting and fantasy sports. The purpose of the present study was to explore rates of sports-related gambling among adolescents from 2018 to 2020, while examining age and gender-related differences, and the relationship between sports-related gambling and problem gambling severity. Based on a representative sample of students from Wood County, Ohio, 6,842 adolescents completed a survey in 2018 and 6,156 adolescents completed a survey in 2020. Independent samples t-tests were used to compare mean differences in the frequency of gambling behaviors between surveys, and chi-square analyses were utilized to investigate gender and grade-related differences in gambling and problem gambling behaviors within and between each year of data collection. Overall, results indicate that rates of engagement in all assessed gambling behaviors were fairly similar in 2018 and 2020. Males were more likely to engage in all forms of gambling while being more likely to only gamble on sports. Rates of problem gambling were highest among males, with even higher rates of problem gambling being noted among male sports-only gamblers. Based on grade level, younger adolescents were more likely to gamble on sports and report gambling problems compared to older youth. With the broader availability of sports gambling, it will be of utmost importance to continue monitoring levels of engagement in sports betting among adolescents.
    Peter Zimmer*
    Movement enhancement and sport are cornerstones in the treatment of diabetics. Motivated patients with diabetes should therefore be given access to regular physical activity through competent advice from the attending doctor. The sports medical examination, advice on dose reduction of potentially hypoglycemia - pregnant medication as well as a training plan belong to the offer of the sports medical consultation in addition to references to special sports offers.
    Letter to the Editor
    Stasinopoulos Dimitrios*
    Therapeutic Ultrasound (TUS) is a modality that physiotherapists use daily in their clinical practice [1]. There is strong evidence that TUS has positive effects on tendon healing [2,3]. This strong evidence is supported by animal studies. The effectiveness of TUS is based on its parameters [4].
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