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    Volume 2, Issue 2
    Review Article
    Srishti Kotiyal and Susinjan Bhattacharya*
    Abstract: Lung cancer is responsible for causing more than 1 million deaths worldwide each year making it the most common cancer in humans. It has now been established that lung cancers contain a subpopulation of cancer cells, responsible for tumor initiation, propagation, and metastasis, termed as cancer stem cells (CSCs). However, this stem cell population in lung cancers remains poorly characterized. The present review discusses on the novel cell surface markers that would be required for isolating lung CSCs, and characterization of these important cells. The discussion also elucidates the regulatory signalling pathways involved in their maintenance and the role of miRNA in lung cancer stem cells and prospects of using them as therapeutic targets.
    Lin Cao*, Colin D McCaig and Jin Pu
    Abstract: The existence of electrical signals in the extracellular space of mammalian brain has been known for many decades, for example in hippocampus and cerebellum. But their biological significance is poorly understood. Recently, we discovered that endogenous electrical signals serve as a guidance cue for neuroblast migration from the subventricular zone (SVZ) to the olfactory bulb (OB). We identified the existence of naturally occurring electrical currents (1.5±0.6µA/cm2) which generate average electrical field strength of 3-5mV/mm between the SVZ and the OB in adult mouse brain. The currents enter the brain from the lateral ventricles and flow out from the OB. In addition, the cortical surface was ~ 5.5 mv positive to the ventricle. This represents a flow of electrical current from SVZ to OB with a return path from the pia mater membrane to the ependymal epithelium of the lateral ventricle. Intriguingly, a similarly sized applied electric field (EF) of 5mV/mm induced cathodally directed migration of neuroblasts, both in isolated culture and in brain slices. This suggests that naturally occurring electrical signals serve as a novel long distance guidance vectors that promote directed neuronal migration along the rostral migratory stream. In addition, an applied EF guided the direction of neural outgrowth from the neural tube. Therefore, an endogenous extracellular EF may play an important role in neurogenesis as one of the extracellular cues in the microenvironment. Here we review how endogenous extracellular electrical signals are generated, their functional role in neuroblast migration and the resulting clinical potential.
    Soichiro Sonoda, Erika Tomoda, Yosuke Tanaka, Takayoshi Yamaza*
    Abstract: Fifteen years have been passed after the first discovery of human dental pulp-derived stem cells. Now, four types of stem cells are isolated from human dental pulp tissues, and are identified as dental pulp stem cells (DPSCs), stem cells from human exfoliated deciduous teeth (SHED), stem cells from apical papilla (SCAP), and human supernumerary tooth-derived stem cells (SNTSCs). Recent investigations accumulate diverse evidence regarding to human dental pulp-derived stem cells to understand their properties, especially the multipotency of the stem cells. Therefore, many investigators have focused on human dental pulp-derived stem cells to apply regenerative therapy for dental and systemic diseases. This review provides insights into properties of human dental pulp-derived stem cells and current application of human dental pulp-derived stem cells into translational researches for local and systemic diseases.
    Aous Dannan, Wolf-Dieter Grimm, Sebastian Becher, Georg Gassmann, Wolfgang Arnold, Gabor Varga, Thomas Dittmar
    Abstract: The presence of stem cells in the periodontal ligament was supported by several findings where a opulation of mesenchymal stem cells from the periodontal ligament has been isolated and characterizedshowing the ability to express a variety of stromalcells markers. The in vivo regenerative capacity of human periodontium-derived stem cells (PdSCs) was investigated by using 10-week-old athymic nude rats that served as an animal model for cell transplantation. Two animals from the second group (sacrificed at week#6) and all the animals of the third group (N=4) (sacrificed at week#8) presented remarkable tissue enlargements exactly at the operation/test side where PdSCs had been previously transplanted. Histologically, these unusual tissueswere considered to be types of anaplastic squamous epithelial-cell carcinoma.The patients from whom the PdSCs had been extracted, the animal model used, and a possible oncogenic alteration of the PdSCs themselves might all be factors behind the tumors' initiation. Considering such tumors as cancer stem cells needs further investigations.
    Fang-Xu Jiang1* and Grant Morahan2
    Generation of functional somatic cells is the ultimate goal of regenerative medicine for replacing/restoring those lost through injury or disease. Absolute or relative loss of insulin-secreting β cells is characteristic of type 1 or type 2 diabetes mellitus, a major public health problem that currently affects approximately 400 million people worldwide.
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