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  • ISSN: 2378-9344
    Volume 1, Issue 2
    Review Article
    Shinghua Ding1,2*
    Astrocytes are a predominant glial cell type in the CNS and an integral part of a synapse and vasculature unit in CNS. In vitro and in vivo studies have revealed that astrocytes play a variety of roles in physiology and pathology. In particular, recent studies indicate that astrocytic Ca2+ signaling is involved in the regulation of functional hyperemia. This article reviews the astrocytic Ca2+ signaling pathway and recent advances regarding the role of Ca2+ signaling in the regulation of cerebral blood flow. The article discusses the discrepancies from different studies (especially in vivo studies) and the potential role of IP3R-mediated Ca2+ signaling pathway, and suggests that the involvement of astrocytic Ca2+ in functional hyperemia can be affected by tissue metabolism, animal species, age, brain region and wakefulness of animals. Thus the precise mechanisms by which astrocytic Ca2+ regulates cerebral blood flow can only be elucidated in a defined preparation.
    Clinical Image
    Dhafer Salem1, Mohammed A Chamsi-Pasha2*, Shikhar Saxena2 and Samer H Sayyed2
    An 87-year-old female patient with advanced dementia presented with altered sensorium and dyspnea. Exam revealed stable vital signs, disoriented patient with no focal neurological deficits, and left lower extremity edema.
    Research Article
    Md. Majedul Islam1,2,3,*, Subrina Jesmin1,2,3, Shamima Akter1,2,3, Chishimba Nathan Mowa1, Hideaki Sakuramoto2, Sohel Reza Chowdhury4, Arifur Rahman1,2,5, AKM Ahsan Habib1,5, Osamu Okazaki3, Nobutake Shimojo2, Takashi Miyauchi2, Satoru Kawano2 and Taro Mizutani2
    Background and purpose: Metabolic alterations and endothelial dysfunction in patients with type 2diabetes and metabolic syndrome (Met S) often develop concurrently and measurement of circulating ET-1 levels is a well recognized marker of endothelial atherosclerotic and cardiovascular diseases. Here, we assess association between vasoactive peptide, endothelin-1 (ET-1), with Met S in rural Bangladeshi women.
    Methods and subjects: Plasma levels of ET-1 were measured by ELISA and Met S was defined according to criteria of NCEP-ATP III. Multiple regressions were used to examine association between circulatory ET-1 levels and Met S.
    Results: A total of 1236 rural Bangladeshi women aged =15 years were studied using a population based cross sectional survey. The prevalence of Met S was 25.1%. Mean values of BMI, waist circumference, blood pressure (SBP, DBP), plasma fasting glucose, triglyceride, mean arterial pressure and fasting insulin were significantly higher, whereas levels of HDL cholesterol were significantly lower in Met S group compared to non Met S group. ET-1 levels significantly increased in Met S subjects [(Met S vs. non-Met S: 3.17±0.12 vs. 2.31±0.05, p=<0.001]. Based on univariate analyses, after adjusting for age, levels of ET-1 showed significant associations with waist circumference, SBP, DBP, mean arterial pressure, HDL cholesterol and fasting plasma glucose. However, in a stepwise multiple regression analysis, after adjusting for age and all other potential variables, only MAP, fasting plasma glucose and HDL cholesterol was found to be independently correlated with ET-1. We also found that mean plasma levels of ET-1 increased in direct proportion to levels of Met S components (p for trend=0.015).
    Conclusions: Here, we provide the first evidence demonstrating an association between ET-1 plasma levels and Met S in Bangladeshi rural women. These data implicate ET-1 in Met S and indicate that plasma ET-1 could potentially be used as a surrogate biomarker for this disease and its associated complications. The present study is the first to assess relationship between levels of plasma ET-1 in Met S subjects from a South Asian country.
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