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  • ISSN: 2378-9344
    Volume 8, Issue 2
    Mini Review
    Cestmir Recek*
    The hemodynamic characteristic of the popliteal vein is assessed. The hydrostatic pressure in the popliteal vein amounts to about 60 mm Hg at the knee level. Pressure changes are produced by the calf pump activity; they are much mitigated and short-lived in the popliteal vein, which contrasts distinctly with the situation in deep lower leg veins, where the pressure excursions are pronounced. The systolic pressure in the popliteal vein increases by about 25 mm Hg above the hydrostatic pressure during the first calf muscle contraction; the diastolic pressure decreases by about 8 mm Hg below the hydrostatic pressure.
    The incompetence of the popliteal vein is hemodynamically not relevant; this statement is in contrast with the prevailing opinion. The state of affairs has been documented by plethysmographic examinations. Small saphenous vein incompetence is regularly accompanied by the incompetence of the femoropopliteal venous axis. Abolition of small saphenous vein reflux eliminates the hemodynamic disorders and restores physiological plethysmographic values in spite of the persistent popliteal vein incompetence. The refluxing flow in the popliteal vein disappears after interruption or abolition of small saphenous vein reflux.
    From the functional point of view, the popliteal vein is the outflow pipe for the calf muscle pump, similarly to the aorta, which is the outflow pipe for the left ventricle.
    Short Communication
    Hasan Ekim* and Meral Ekim
    Background: Currently, venous thromboembolism (VTE) is the common name for both pulmonary embolism (PE) and deep vein thrombosis (DVT). Some studies have reported a relationship between low vitamin D concentrations and VTE. Although the negative effects of vitamin D deficiency on coagulation, fibrinolysis and inflammation have been shown increasingly in both in vitro and animal studies, data from human studies are less conclusive. Therefore, we tried to determine the relationship between DVT and 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D).
    Methods: A total of 151 participants, including 82 patients with DVT and 69 healthy participants, were included in this study. Serum 25(OH)D and magnesium levels were measured in all participants.
    Result: In the patient group, there were 42 men and 40 women with a mean age of 56.73±17.06 years. In the healthy control group, there were 30 men and 39 women with a mean age of 53.28±18.42 years. The mean serum 25(OH)D level of the DVT patients (12.58±6.51 ng/mL) was found significantly lower than the healthy participants (18.75±9.16 ng/mL) (p<0.03). Vitamin D deficiency was more frequent in female patients (90%) compared to male counterparts (76.2%), whereas it was about the same frequency in healthy males (50%) and females (48.7%).
    Conclusion: Our study supports the view that there may be a relationship between DVT and vitamin D deficiency. Although the number of patients is not sufficient, we can suggest that severe vitamin D deficiency may be a predisposing risk factor to be considered for DVT, especially in FVL carriers. However, our findings should be supported with further studies.
    Review Article
    Nathan S. Jiang, Matthew Nudy, Xuezhi Jiang
    Recent studies have shown that the two-way link between depression and heart disease may be more prevalent than ever.
    Case Report
    Owais Bhat, Shah Omair*, Atiq Ul Islam and Shera Tahleel
    Recent studies have shown that the two-way link between depression and heart disease may be more prevalent than ever.Vascular ectasias which include Arteriovenous malformations (AVMs) and angiodysplasias account for approximately 3% of lower gastrointestinal bleed. Selective mesenteric angiography although still considered to be definitive in the diagnosis of an intestinal AVM it is being gradually replaced by CT angiography. We herein present a rare case of intestinal AVM presenting with lower gastro intestinal bleed diagnosed by Contrast CT with CT angiography.
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