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  • ISSN: 2333-6641
    Volume 1, Issue 1
    July/August 2013
    Editorial
    Glenn Woodworth1* and Andres Missair2
    Medicine has a long history that is fundamentally rooted in an apprenticeship model of education. A common refrain heard during residency has been “see one, do one, teach one.” The new generation of physicians is likely to hear a much different tune. Medical Education is rapidly evolving from the traditional experienced-based model to a competency-based model with defined educational goals and competency requirements [1,2].
    Xiaowen Bai1* and Zeljko J. Bosnjak1,2
    It is well known that the prolonged exposure of developing animals such as rodents and non-human primates to general anesthetics can induce widespread neuronal cell death followed by long-term memory and learning disabilities [1-7]. The field of anesthetic neurotoxicity research is rapidly evolving and expanding, allowing for contribution to a better understanding the underlying molecular and cellular mechanisms and developing preventive strategies.
    Nicholas Weber and Michael S. Green*
    Abstract: Near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) is a noninvasive monitor that can be used with clinical skill to help determine cerebral oxygen supply and demand balance even during times when pulsatile flow is absent. Patients for cardiac surgery are at risk for significant post-operative cognitive dysfunction. High flow rates during cardiopulmonary bypass is a risk factor for embolization, while low flows may produce insufficient MAPs to maintain cerebral perfusion. Interventions based on NIRS data has proven beneficial. Other high risk patient populations stand to benefit from using the technology as well. NIRS may help to guide the clinician producing shorter hospital stays and a decrease in post-operative cognitive dysfunction.
    Antonella Carsana*
    Rhabdomyolysis is an acute syndrome determined by skeletal muscle breakdown and massive release of the intracellular content into blood circulation, which can lead to potentially fatal events, such as acute renal failure, hyperkalemia, and other metabolic complications.
    Andres Missair1* and Ralf E. Gebhard2
    While the definitive treatment for cancer is frequently surgery, the perioperative period represents one of the greatest risk factors for tumor cell proliferation and eventual metastases [1-3]. Several studies have demonstrated that surgery stimulates neuroendocrine and cytokine stress responses, suppresses cell-mediated immunity, disperses tumor cell emboli, and promotes tumor growth and metastasis in animal models [4-6].
    Johan KM Aps*
    Local anesthesia in dentistry has not always received much attention. In some curricula the course is merely a few hours and students are quickly released on the patients. Clinical supervisors are often inadequately trained to assist when problems arise and act according to their personal experiences when inadequate anesthesia is obtained. The latter results in frustration when a patient keeps reporting pain during a dental procedure.
    Lockwood H1 and McLeod G2*
    There can be no doubt that the addition of ultrasound to regional anaesthesia has enabled anaesthetists to directly visualise key anatomy and monitor local anaesthetic spread [1]. A recent meta-analysis of 42 studies has shown an increase in the proportion of patients receiving good quality nerve block without need for rescue analgesia to be 93% for ultrasoundguided regional anaesthesia (UGRA), compared to only 83% for peripheral nerve stimulation (PNS), risk ratio 1.09 (95% CI 1.05-1.13).
    Review Article
    Suren Soghomonyan1*, Karina Castellon Larios1, Andrei M. Jipa1 and Sergio D. Bergese1,2
    Abstract: Brain surgery carries the risk of intraoperative ischemic damage to the healthy tissues, which may result in significant neurological deficit in the postoperative period and worsen the clinical outcome. Recent advances in neuroimaging, intraoperative neurophysiological monitoring and surgical technique help to reduce the risk of ischemia and allow for a more aggressive approach for pathologies considered inoperable in the past.
    Nicoleta Stoicea1*, Thomas Wilson1, Kaarthik Chandrasekhar1 and Sergio D. Bergese1,2
    Abstract: MicroRNA is a non-coding single-stranded RNA able to alter and modulate gene expression. Sustained research in animal models increased the knowledge on the regulatory function of microRNA and its effect on gene expression at the posttranscriptional level in the central nervous system (CNS), with the final goal of developing new therapeutic and diagnostic strategies for CNS disorders.
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