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    Volume 2, Issue 2
    Short Communication
    Magali Clobert*
    Previous research has found that East Asian (i.e. Buddhist) religiosity, unlike Western Christian religiosity, predicts tolerance toward other ethnic and religious groups. Nevertheless, studies in that field only investigated majority-minority relationships. Do Asian religious minorities remain tolerant toward other minority groups? In this study (N = 103), the relationship between religiosity and prejudice was investigated among Asians living in the West. Contrary to previous findings, East Asian religiosity related positively with prejudice against other ethnic (i.e. Africans) and religious (i.e. Muslims) minority groups. On the contrary, a marginal negative association was found between East Asian religiosity and prejudice against the dominant religious group: Christians. While tradition was the main predictor of ethnic prejudice when personality and values were controlled for, religiosity remained a significant predictor of inter-religious prejudice. To conclude, East Asian religious tolerance is not unlimited: When competing with other minority groups, East Asian religiosity is positively related to prejudice.
    Stephen F. Stringham*, Lynn L. Rogers
    Wildlife viewing is a popular form of recreation, an important scientific tool, and a goldmine for communities near wildlife concentrations. Especially popular are animals that continue natural behavior while viewers are within photographic range. Reciprocally, an animal’s experience with benign viewers tends to further habituate its fear of humans (its anthropophobia). Yet boldness and habituation by large mammals are widely regarded as unnatural and dangerous. This creates a dilemma for managers of viewable wildlife, especially in America’s national parks where maximizing naturalness is mandated. To help resolve this dilemma, we identified 3 criteria of natural fear: a) It does not have to be learned and is typically exhibited even during an animal’s first encounter with a human. b) Fear of humans is triggered by key stimuli specific to humans, not by mistaking humans for some other enemy or by xenophobia or some other generic or highly abstract phobia. c) In comparisons among populations or within a population at different times, the level of anthropophobia is directly related to the intensity and duration of human persecution (e.g., during the last 2 – 3 millennia). None of these criteria are met by available data from literature review or from our field observations on brown bears (Ursus arctos) and American black bears (U. americanus). We found negligible support for the hypothesis that bears are naturally anthropophobic – i.e., no indication that anthropophobia evolved as an adaptation protecting bears against human persecution. Rather, anthropophobia is more likely a side-effect of ursophobia or xenophobia, or the result of learning through aversive interactions with humans.
    Danial Favre*
    Mobile phone companies and policy makers point to studies with contradictory results and usually claim that there is a lack of scientific proof of adverse effects of electromagnetic fields on animals. The present perspective article describes an experiment on bees, which clearly shows the adverse effects of electromagnetic fields on these insects’ behavior. The experiment should be reproduced by other researchers so that the danger of manmade electromagnetism (for bees, nature and thus humans) ultimately appears evident to anyone.
    Original Research Article
    Marie-Claire Cammaerts*
    It has been known for a long time that ants can acquire behavioral reactions by conditioning and by imitation. The aim of the present work was to examine if they could, through such learning processes, acquire never previously exhibited behavior or learn to use new methods. Myrmica ruginodis workers were successively confronted with solid sugar and water set apart, a double door shutting their sugar water tube entrance, or a thin cotton barrier plugging their nest entrance. Each time, they could not find an appropriate method to solve the problem. They were then presented with the ‘solution’, i.e., the sugar wetted, the double door slightly opened, and the cotton barrier partly removed. Thereafter, when again confronted with the initial situation, old ants could act appropriately to solve the problem. Ants can thus learn by conditioning and by imitation and can acquire through these processes novel methods or behavioral acts even if they are unable to innovate spontaneously by themselves, to improvise, or to behave correctly in an unknown situation.

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