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  • ISSN: 2641-7812
    Early Online
    Volume 1, Issue 1
    Research Article
    Tina Lien Vestland*, Anders Asberg, Aase Jorun Klaveness, and Jo Klaveness
    Recent years focus on the health benefits of omega-3 has caused foundation for a diverse assortment of omega-3 supplements with regards to quality. Bioavailability of the omega-3 fatty acids from various administration forms has been reported to be highly variable. In this study, a newly developed administration form for omega-3, the omega-3 tablet, has been tested for bioavailability of eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid as triglycerides. It was found that the bioavailability, measured as relative levels of EPA and DHA in serum, was comparable between tablets and the traditional soft-gel capsules. It was further established that time to maximum concentration of EPA and DHA in serum was significantly shorter when the fatty acid esters were administered in tablets. A proposed explanation is that the uptake from the tablet formulation is less dependent on bile acids.
    Agnieszka Napiorkowska*, Monika Kozinska, Sylwia Brzezinska, Dagmara Borkowska, Anna Zabost, Zofia Zwolska, and Ewa Augustynowicz-Kopec
    Rapid identification of drug-resistance in Mycobacterium tuberculosis infections is crucial for early treatment and control of transmission. The MTBDRplus assay is potentially a practical and rapid alternative to the slower phenotypic drug susceptibility testing (DST) for detection of drug resistant tuberculosis (TB). The purpose of this study was to determine the diagnostic accuracy of the MTBDRplus assay.
    Sixty strains of Mycobacterium tuberculosis isolated from TB patients diagnosed in different parts of Poland in the two year period 2015-2016 were used. All strains were analyzed for drug susceptibility using both a conventional indirect proportion method and the MTBDRplus assay.
    The MTBDRplus assay identified 72% (43) of isolates as multidrug-resistant TB (MDR-TB), 7% (4) as INH-monoresistant and 5% (3) as RIF-monoresistant. The sensitivity and specificity of the MTBDRplus assay were 96% and 100% with respect to both RIF- and INH-resistance, while sensitivity of the assay was lower (91%) for MDR-TB. In our study, codon 531 of rpoB gene and codon 315 of katG gene were found to have highest mutational frequency for RIF resistance (74% – 34 strains) and INH resistance (89% – 42 strains) respectively.
    The use of MTBDRplus assay as a supplement to the gold standard DST in obtaining a rapid preliminary DST result may contribute to early optimization of treatment.
    Monika Kozinska*, Agnieszka Napiorkowska, Sylwia Brzezinska, Anna Zabost, Dagmara Borkowska, Zofia Zwolska, and Ewa Augustynowicz-Kopec
    Objective: The most important measures in the control of the spread of drug-resistant tuberculosis (DR-TB) are the early detection of smear-positive patients, implementation of appropriate treatment, and tracing the chain of transmission of infection. Research on TB transmission in the environment of patients indicates that the risk of infection between close contacts, especially family members, is very high. The purpose of this study was to investigate the transmission of DR-TB within 6 family-households identified during the period of 2006-2016 in Poland.
    Methods: Two PCR-based genotyping methods were used: spoligotyping, and mycobacterial interspersed repetitive unit-variable number of tandem repeats (MIRU-VNTR) typing.
    Results: According to spoligotyping and MIRU-VNTR results, in all households, patients had identical Mycobacterium tuberculosis isolates, implying intra-familial transmission. Isolates from 2 families with Beijing-TB represented the pre-XDR and XDR phenotypes.
    Conclusions: This study demonstrates the household setting as an important pathway of drug-resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis transmission, and thereby reinforces the need for routine extensive screening of the housemates of TB patients.
    Mohammad Husain* and Uma Sharma
    Most of the HIV infected children are unaware of the fact that they are suffering from a highly stigmatized disease. Non-disclosure, however, is mainly due to the parent’s own concerns. HIV is a threat to the mental health of the children and to inform the children about their HIV status is troublesome. Since antiretroviral therapy has significantly increased the survival rate of vertically infected HIV children, informing the children about their HIV status is advantageous for their overall health and welfare. In spite of the benefits seen from revealing the HIV status to the children, disclosing the HIV status to the children remains a difficult issue.
    Short Communication
    Anna Zabost*, Sylwia Brzezinska, Agnieszka Napiorkowska, Monika Kozinska, Dagmara Borkowska, Magdalena Klatt, Zofia Zwolska, and Ewa Augustynowicz-Kopec
    The knowledge of the prevalence of drug resistant tuberculosis in the population is important information about the epidemiology of the disease in the country. In Poland, the incidences of drug-resistant tuberculosis have been monitored since the early years of chemotherapy. In the period from 1997 to 2012 were four prospective studies covering the whole country.
    The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence primary and acquired drug resistance of M. tuberculosis strains isolated from patients in Poland in 2012, compared with the results obtained in previous studies (1997-2008).
    Material and methods: The material for the work was taken from 4781 tuberculosis patients excreting susceptible and drug resistant bacilli during the 12-months from 1st January to 31st December 2012. Data about patients were collected based on the results of routine diagnostic tests carried out in tuberculosis laboratories. Division by age group, verification and analysis of data was performed according to WHO recommendations. Drug susceptibility testing was performed on solid medium (L-J) by proportion method and liquid medium using the Bactec MGIT 960 system.
    Results: In this study we were included 4136 patients with tuberculosis (86.9% new and 13.1% treated cases). Among 3596 studied untreated patients 157 (4.4%) excreting drug resistant bacilli. MDR-TB was found in 12 (0.6%) patients and bacilli resistant to 4 drugs in 7 patients (0.2%).Among previously treated patients 63 (11.7%) excreting drug resistant bacilli. MDR-TB was found in 24 patients (4.4%), bacilli resistant to 3 drugs SM+INH+RMP (11 patients – 2.0%) and 4 drugs SM+INH+RMP+EMB (6 patients – 1.1%).
    Conclusions: Among untreated patients 157 (4.4%) excreting drug resistant bacilli, in previously treated patients 63 (11.7%). Excreting drug resistant bacilli MDR-TB was more often in previously treated (4.4%) than untreated patients (0.6%).
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