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  • ISSN: 2333-7109
    Early Online
    Volume 4, Issue 3
    Review Article
    Qayyum Husain*
    The immobilization of cellulolytic enzymes via nanosupport minimizes the problem of steric hindrances between enzyme and carrier, as it has been frequently observed in case of enzymes immobilized on the surface of bulk supports. Cellulolytic enzymes immobilized on the surface of nanomaterials or entrapped inside polymeric nanospheres showed high catalytic efficiency and yield of immobilization. Nanomaterials bound cellulolytic enzymes were found significantly more stable against heat, pH, storage, operational and several other kinds of denaturants. These immobilized enzyme preparations were found less inhibitory to their inhibitors and products. Immobilized enzymes retained remarkably high activity on repeated uses and the nanocarriers bound cellulolytic enzymes have demonstrated their potential in various fields such as in clarification of juices and wines, extraction of plant oils and coffee, bioconversion of agricultural waste, improving the digestibility of animal feed ingredients. A major application at present is in the biodegradation or bioconversion of cellulose to monomeric sugars. Agricultural waste rich in lignocellulosic material has been utilized in the production of large number of industrial products like ethanol, organic acids and other industrially important chemical compounds. Cellobiases immobilized on nanocarriers have also proved their potential as therapeutic agents.
    Anju Dwivedi and Bramanandam Manavathi*
    Epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT) is an essential physiological process in all-multicellular organisms. It plays pivotal role in the normal development of an organism but is equally important for tumor metastasis. For example, during mammary gland development, EMT plays critical role in mammary epithelial cellular migration and the establishment of the new tissue. Epithelial cells in terminal end buds (TEBs) show higher plasticity and induce EMT. The EMT in TEBs is regulated by various factors like epidermal growth factor (EGF), insulin like growth factor- 2 (IGF-2), Wnt-4 and hepatocyte growth Factor (HGF. Interestingly, cells at branching induce the expression of typical mesenchymal markers such as Vimentin and Snail. Besides its fundamental role in developmental process, a large body of data suggests that EMT is an important and integral process in breast tumor metastasis. Emerging studies revealed that EMT and partly tumor heterogeneity cause therapeutic resistance in breast cancer. Comprehending the complexity of the EMT may offer significant understandings that lead to the improvement of therapeutic targets for invasive cancer, and perhaps it can also be used as biomarkers pinpointing tumor subclasses with better likelihoods of relapse, metastasis and drug resistance leading to death. Herein we will review and provide critical comments on the role of EMT as a developmental instructor, metastasis propeller and master of therapeutic resistance using primarily breast as a model system.
    Egydio-Brandão, Anary Priscila Monteiro*, Novaes Paula Santos, and Déborah Yara Alves Cursino dos
    Species of Annonaceae have different popular uses as edible fruits or as traditional medicines. The genus Annona is a rich source of secondary metabolites, which have been isolated and identified from different parts of plant. Among these compounds, alkaloids are known as an important class of chemical constituents. Several chemical and pharmacological investigations on species of Annona indicated the presence of important bioactive compounds, exhibiting various biological activities including anti-acetylcholinesterase, antioxidant, antidepressant, antiepileptic, antimicrobial, antiplasmodial, antiproliferative, antibacterial, antifungal, anti-ulcer, anxiolytic-like effects, cytotoxic, immune-stimulant and larvicidal. In this review, we analyzed published papers from 2005 to 2017 looking preferably for alkaloid composition of species of Annona related to biological activities. Among these papers, 70 alkaloids were reported during the researched period, distributed in 20 species. Aporphine alkaloids were the most common, corresponding to more than half of all alkaloids described. Most of the available data are for leaves; seeds and roots need further studies.
    Research Article
    Elisha Johnston, Shiva Sreenath Andrali, Andrew Kochan, Michael Johnston*, and Jennifer Lovick
    Prolotherapy is an injection of a non-biologic substance with localized effects for repairing connective tissue injuries of the musculoskeletal system. Recent studies in humans show that prolotherapy stimulates cartilage regeneration. However, the scientific community is still seeking to understand the mechanisms of action. To investigate at the cellular level, we utilized a treatment-control murine in vitro model (preosteoblast [MC3T3-E1] cells), microscopy, spectrophotometry, and fluorescent activated cell sorting (FACS). Relative to previous research, we used a more precise method to evaluate cell proliferation. Further, we employed a measurement schedule that enabled a more detailed examination of the decline and growth of treatment and control groups. Our more specific and focused results are consistent with, and help to confirm, previous research findings. We find that, in an initial phase, prolotherapy treatment induces death in a small percentage of cells followed by a significant (p<0.05) increase in cell proliferation compared to control. Additionally, we provide entirely new insights into the cell cycle dynamics of P2G-induced cell proliferation. Namely, our findings indicate that P2G treatment induces faster progression through the G1/S phase. In conclusion, our study provides a theoretical model and supportive evidence for the hypothesis that prolotherapy stimulates cartilage regeneration.
    Yie-Hwa Chang* and Edward A. Doisy
    The discovery of fat mass and obesity-associated protein (FTO) as a demethylase of N6-methyladenosine (m6A) RNA modification, together with findings from two independent reports of transcriptome-wide m6A mapping, renewed interest in the regulatory influences of RNA modifications on mRNA function [1-3].
    Research Article
    George D. Wilson*, Sandra Galoforo, Kevin Blas, Nathan Tonlaar, Thomas G. Wilson, Arth Patel, Alaa Hana, Mohamad Dabjan, Katie Buelow, and Brian Marples
    In this study we have combined fractionated radiation with three different drugs targeting the PIK3/AKT/MTOR pathway in pre-clinical models of head and neck cancer. Three drugs were studied; two were dual PIK3/MTOR inhibitors, PF-04691502 and gedatolisib, whilst buparlisib was a pan-PIK3 inhibitor without effect on MTOR. The effect of the drugs was studied in vitro and in vivo on tumor growth and on phosphorylation status of key signaling proteins. The drugs had differential sensitivity in vitro with gedatolisib being the most active. None of the agents significantly modified radiation sensitivity in clonogenic assays. The agents had variable effects in vivo both alone and in combination with radiation. Buparlisib was effective against UT-SCC-15 xenografts both alone (p= 0.001) and combined with RT (p= 0.008) but was without any activity against UT-SCC-14 xenografts. The dual PIK3/MTOR inhibitors exhibited mixed activity. PF-04691502 alone had some activity although not quite significant in UT-SSC-14 but was inactive in UT-SCC-15. Gedatolisib showed inhibition of growth in both xenograft models. When combined with RT, PF-04691502 maintained a significant enhancement in UT-SSC-14 but had no effect in UT-SCC-15.Gedatolisib proved less effective when combined with radiation. Alterations in the phosphorylation status of key proteins mirrored the effect on tumor growth inhibition. The effectiveness of drugs targeting the PIK3/MTOR axis was difficult to predict as was their combination with radiation. The complex genomic landscape of HNSCC and the substantial cross-talk between signaling pathways present a significant challenge to predict and prescribe the optimal treatment for individual patients.
    Review Article
    Valencia Jacobs
    Abstract: Research in tissue engineering related to the improved processes using nanofiber scaffolds has seen considerable progress in the last decade in the regeneration and construction of a number of artificial tissue types. These designs are generally viewed from the perspective of possible sources for clinical implant and transplant materials. Nowadays, advancement in engineering of tissues often referred to as three-dimensional (3D) cell culture provides enhanced activities owing to the 3D systems that readily imitate the in vivo setting for differentiated organs, than a typical 2D cell culture. Electro-spinning has been useful in producing nanofibrous scaffolds with large surface area and high pore volume that has the potential to mimic the morphology of a tissue extracellular matrix and hence promoting cell attachment, proliferation and differentiation. This review reports improved processes of tissue revitalization utilizing electrospunnanofibrous scaffolds. Different tissue engineering approaches including their advantages have been discussed. Also, various biomaterials from both synthetic and natural origin have been elaborated.
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