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  • ISSN: 2333-7117
    Current Issue
    Volume 4, Issue 2
    Review Article
    Guochao Li and Yingli Sun*
    As an important part of precision medicine, liquid biopsy attracts more and more attention of scholars and clinicians. It refers to the real-time monitoring of the dynamic alterations of tumor by detecting circulating tumor cells (CTCs), circulating tumor DNA (ctDNA) and exosomes in patients' plasma or serum. Thus, liquid biopsy has irreplaceable advantages in tumor early diagnosis, progression monitoring, curative effects evaluation, prognosis judgement and so on as a non-invasive method. Here we reviewed traditional clinical diagnostic technologies and the liquid biopsy and summarized the advantages, limitations and test indexes of CTCs, ctDNAs and exosomes for their clinical applications. We also enumerated other applications of liquid biopsy by using other body fluids to monitor some particular cancers. At last, we forecasted the opportunities and existed challenges of liquid biopsy.
    Jixin Ding, M. Reza Saadatzadeh, Aaron Cohen-Gadol, and Karen E. Pollok*
    Development of effective anti-cancer therapies continues to be a challenge due to genetic instability that promotes intra-tumoral molecular heterogeneity and subsequent adaptation to therapy. In this review, we briefly discuss the history of the p53 family (p53/p63/p73) and how regulatory circuits affect its function in promoting apoptotic cell death. In addition, we provide perspective on how protein-protein interactions between members of the p53 family, as well as, with other regulatory proteins can dictate response to therapy. In the future, therapies that focus on targeting the p53 family to sustain pro-apoptotic pathways in combination with cancer-specific dysregulated signaling pathways is a promising approach. With further investigation at the basic science level, improvements in efficacy and quality of life for cancer patients with diverse molecular signatures may be realized.
    Research Article
    Gopalan Rajkumar, Periyakali Saravana Bhavan*, Veeran Srinivasan, Annamalai Asaikutti, and Rajendran Udayasuriyan
    The in vitro and in vivo antibacterial activity of marine alga, Turbinaria ornata against Pseudomonas aeruginosa on Macrobrachium rosenbergii was studied. The hexanic, acetonic and methanolic extracts of T. ornata were subjected to in vitro study, which showed that the methanolic extract of T. ornata was worked well and produced 24.02 ± 0.47mm zone of inhibition against P. aeruginosa. In the in vivo study, the characteristic appearance of brown/black spots was detected all over the body of M. rosenbergii when the prawns were subjected to immersion in water containing P. aeruginosa (107 cells/mL) and fed with basal diet contained no incorporated T. ornata. Activities of metabolic enzymes (GOT and GPT) and antioxidant enzymes (SOD and catalase), and lipid peroxidation (LPO) were found to be significantly increased in the hepatopancreas of M. rosenbergii due to the infection with P. aeruginosa. These effects were greatly reduced/ neutralized when M. rosenbergii fed with methanolic extract of T. ornata incorporated feed, which in turn ultimately enhanced the survival rate of M. rosenbergii against P. aeruginosa infection. The 2D gel electrophoresis revealed degradation of hepatopancreatic proteins in P. aeruginosa infected M. rosenbergii, whereas the reverse was seen in methanolic extracts of T. ornata incorporated feed fed prawns. Thus, T. ornata possessed the potency of anti P. aeruginosa. One of the active principles of T. ornata, 2-Hexadecen-1-ol, 3,7,11,15-tetramethyl-,[R-[R*,R*-(E)]] was found to be bind with the protein, exotoxin-A of P. aeruginosa when molecular docking was performed. Therefore, there is scope for developing aquaculture medicine with T. ornata against Pseudomonas infection.
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