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  • ISSN: 2373-9436
    Early Online
    Volume 8, Issue 1
    Research Article
    Serkan Akan and Caner Ediz*
    Objective: In this study, we examined histopathologically the tumour components or combinations of these components and analysed to changes of pathological findings with aging in the patients diagnosed with testicular mixed germ cell tumour (MGCT) in the last 10 years.
    Materials and methods: 207 patients who underwent radical inguinal orchiectomy due to testicular cancer between 2010 and 2019 were retrospectively reviewed and 107 cases with MGCT whose data were fully available were included in the study. Age, primary tumour localization, primary tumour size, histopathological components and combinations of these components were analyzed. To compare the change of tumour components with aging, patients were divided into two groups according to patients age, Group 1 was younger than 25 years of age and group 2 was = 25 years old.
    Results: The mean age of the patients was 24.67 4.31 years. Tumour component of MGCT included embryonal carcinoma in 87 patients (81.3%), teratoma in 72 patients (67.3%), yolk sac carcinoma in 66 patients (61.7%), choriocarcinoma in 17 patients (15.9%) and seminoma in 44 patients (41.1%). Current combination of these tumours was analyzed and the most common combination was found as embryonal carcinoma + teratoma + yolk sac carcinoma in 26 patients (24.3%) and the second most common combination was found as embryonal carcinoma + seminoma in 17 patients (15.9%). The incidence of three or more components was significantly higher in group 2 (57.8%) than in group 1 (51.6%) (p<0.05). The mean follow-up of the patients was 43.37 months (3-113) and 2 patients died for testicular cancer in follow-up period.
    Conclusion: In 10-year series, the most common MGCT component was found as embryonal carcinoma and teratoma, while the most common combination was embryonal carcinoma + teratoma + yolk sac carcinoma. Combination of three or more components in MGCT may be more reported with increasing age (especially over 25 years old).
    Nicholas M. Schlaeger, Carmen Berkan, Ingrid Albu, Aaron P. Monte, and Cheng-chen Huang*
    Within melanoma tumors are a small subpopulation of cells called cancer stem cells (CSC). They can be categorized by two fundamental properties, self-renewal and differentiation. CSC play a vital role in metastasis, tumor relapse and chemotherapeutic resistance. Here we identified compounds that seem to specifically target the melanoma CSC population. B16F10 mouse melanoma cells treated with synthetic compounds SK0408 or SK0459 first showed reduction of proliferation in the MTT and anti-phophohistone H3 immunostaining assays. Western blotting revealed that SK0408 and SK0459 has no effect on phosphorylated MAPK level but significant decrease of phophorylated Akt and increase of phosphorylated b-catenin. Using melanoma stem cell markers CD133, CD271, and CD20, we found that SK0408 and SK0459 indeed cause a 54-79% reduction in the melanoma stem cells population. Cell invasion assay showed reduced metastatic potential in treated cells. Furthermore, we observed an increase of the epithelial marker E-cadherin but a decrease in the mesenchymal marker vimentin in the treated cells. Additionally, western blotting and RT-qPCR showed an elevated level of differentiation gene expression of Pax-3, MITF, DCT, and tyrosinase. Our results demonstrate the therapeutic potential of these compounds in suppressing melanoma cell growth and metastasis by reducing melanoma stem cells through promoting melanocyte differentiation.
    Marwa A. Suliman*, Maha L. Zamzam, Omar AT, and Fahmy NM
    Introduction: Colorectal cancer (CRC) is the third most common malignancy and the fourth leading cause of cancer death worldwide. In Egypt, it is the six cancers in both males and females. This study was performed to define the epidemiological and clinicopathological characteristics of CRC in Egypt.
    Material and Methods: Retrospective study included all patients diagnosed with colorectal carcinoma at Suez Canal University Hospitals, Egypt from January 2006 to December 2016.
    Results: A total of 193 patients were included in this study, 57% were females and 43% were males. Colon cancer were more common than those located in the rectum, (58.6% vs. 25.4%), the ascending colon was the commonest location (56.2%). Descending colon and rectum were equally the commonest in females (29.1%) while the ascending colon was the commonest in males (28.9%). Most tumors were adenocarcinoma (76.2%). In terms of tumor markers, CEA was elevated in 45.6% and CA19.9 was elevated in 40.9% in preoperative evaluation. Most patients presented with stage II (30.6%). Liver was the most common metastatic site (67.6%). The overall survival was 18.8 month.
    Conclusion: Colon cancer is more frequent than rectum cancer where ascending colon is the most affected sub site. The mean age at diagnosis was 52.6 years with female predominance. Most patients had tumors that were adenocarcinoma, low grade and most presented in stage II. Liver is the commonest metastatic site. The overall survival was 18.8 month. Three-year and 5-years survival rate were 16.1% and 3.6%.
    Joel B. Epstein*, Dana Villines MA, Geena L. Epstein RN, and Gregory Smutzer
    Objective: The purpose of this paper is to present patient reported outcomes (PRO) of oral function and toxicity in head and neck cancer (HNC) patients and the clinical oral conditions affecting diet and maintenance of body weight during and following cancer therapy.
    Study design: Patients with HNC were evaluated during and following cancer therapy. Oral conditions affecting taste and oral diet, including taste and smell function were assessed.
    Results: The participating patients reported appetite decline and taste loss in 50% of patients during and in 62.5% following treatment. Decreased food intake and altered food choice were reported as severe by 50% of patients. Throat and mouth pain affected 67% of acute and 42% of post-treatment patients. The spicy perception of capsaicin was reported to have severe impact for 80% of acute and 70% of post-treatment patients. Bitter taste perception affected oral diet either often or all the time in 33% of acute and in 83% of post-treatment patients. Weight loss occurred in 5% during treatment and in 12% post-treatment.
    Conclusions: This is the first report of clinical oral function including taste and smell testing, saliva production and patient reported outcomes. Oral complications including mucositis and saliva affect taste change throughout cancer treatment and in the first two years of survivorship. This study provides initial suggestions that may guide diet and food intake and in product development for HNC patients.
    Weiyu Wang*, Yang Yang*, Shengyao Ma, Huaijie Wang, Hanyue Li, Qingtao Yan, Kunning Yang, Zhigin Gao, Mei-Hua Qu
    Objective: To study the clinical significance of CD4 and CD45 expression in patients with non-small cell lung cancer.
    Methods: Biopsies from 140 patients with non-small cell lung cancer in Weifang Second Peoples Hospital from January 2011 to December 2015 were collected and made into tissue microarray. The expression of CD4 and CD45 in tissue microarray was detected by immunohistochemistry. The overall survival (OS) of patients was followed up by telephone in August 2020. Graphpad primes 8 and BIM SPSS statistics 22 were used for statistical analysis.
    Results: Immunohistochemical staining showed a significant positive correlation between the expression of CD4 and CD45 from the same patients (Person correlation=0.4, P<0.0001). Kaplan-Meier survival analysis showed that the OS of CD4high patients was higher than that of CD4low patients (log-rank=0.0456); the OS of CD4highCD45high patients was higher than that of CD4lowCD45low patients (log-rank=0.0362). No significant difference was found in OS between CD45high and CD45low patients (log-rank = 0.5454).
    Conclusion: There was a positive correlation between CD4 and CD45 in non-small cell lung cancer, and the expression of CD4 and CD45 in tumor tissue was positively correlated with OS.
    Case Report
    Alparslan Serarslan*, Deniz Meydan, Bilge Gursel, Nilgun Ozbek Okumus, Mehmet Koyuncu, Yurdanur Sullu, Cetin Celenk
    Maxillary sinus malignancies are uncommon. They are separated into squamous and non-squamous cells histopathologically, with most of them being squamous cell carcinomas. Maxillary sinus transitional cell carcinoma is extremely rare and is classified as primary (sinusal origin) or secondary (non-sinusal origin). Herein, we report the long-term control of primary maxillary sinus transitional cell carcinoma with surgery followed by radiotherapy. A 31-year-old female patient was admitted with a complaint of swelling on the right side of her face. Paranasal sinus computed tomography showed a right-sided maxillary sinus tumor. Biopsy revealed transitional cell carcinoma, following which the patients right maxilla was totally removed with negative surgical margins. The final histological diagnosis was consistent with the previous diagnosis. The patient underwent postoperative radiotherapy. She remained disease-free at the 14-year follow-up. Knowledge concerning the treatment of maxillary sinus transitional cell carcinoma is limited. The combination of surgery and radiotherapy seems to be successful for this rare maxillary malignancy.
    Review Article
    Kritin Vasamreddy1, Aritra Mullick1, Inamul Haque1, Syed Shadaan1, Seth Acup1, Younggi D. Moon1, Suman Kambhampati1,2*, Snigdha Banerjee, Mohiuddin Quadir4 and Sushanta K. Banerjee*
    Multiple Myeloma (MM) is a malignant B neoplasm that can be characterized as a plasma cell dyscrasia in the bone marrow. Though there has been a significant improvement in the prognosis of the disease in the past decade, it is still incurable, as most patients relapse or become refractory to standard treatment. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are short, single-stranded, highly conserved, non-coding RNAs that play a vital role in the post-transcriptional regulation of gene expression. Over the past decade, miRNAs have been investigated to see the potential impacts on hematological malignancies such as MM. Since their discovery in 1993, a significant volume of work has been done to figure out the Role of miRNAs in controlling MM. MicroRNAs can upregulate or downregulate the expression of a gene, and their Dysregulation is associated with clinical disease. They play a significant role in cellular signaling and various biological processes like cellular proliferation, aging, maturation, and apoptosis. They are critical to the normal functioning and development of the human body. This review will provide insight into the roles that miRNAs play in general cancer cell biology with a particular focus on MM, its clinical course, and management and highlight potential treatment options for using miRNA for the treatment of MM. Tumor suppressor microRNAs (TS miRNAs) and oncogenic microRNAs (Onco miRNAs) and their significance in the development and treatment of MM are also discussed. The use of miRNA in distinguishing MGUS (monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance) from MM is also discussed, and a possibility to prevent the progression of MGUS to MM is highlighted in this review.
    Research Article
    Anisha Raju, Karuvaje Thriveni*, Shankaranand S Bharatnur, and Ravi Arjunan
    Introduction: Telomerase a ribonucleoprotein enzyme maintains chromosomal stability by adding tandem DNA repeats to ends of chromosomes. Human telomerase reverse transcriptase (hTERT), the catalytical subunit of the telomerase core enzyme, regulates enzyme activity. The present study aims at evaluating the expression of telomerase hTERT subunit in invasive ductal breast carcinoma with clinicopathological parameters like: age at diagnosis, menopausal status, clinical stage, histopathological grade, lymph node status, hormone receptor status (estrogen receptor and progesterone receptor) and HER2/neu status.
    Methods: hTERT gene expression analysis was performed on tumor samples from 186 patients with primary invasive breast cancer using qPCR analysis and SYBR chemistry using Beta-2 microglobulin (B2M) a housekeeping gene as an internal control.
    Results: hTERT tissue expression was found to be significantly higher in breast tumor tissues when compared to the adjacent normal tissue (p < 0.01), with 73.98% cases positive for hTERT expression. We observed a significant association between hTERT expression and stage of disease (p < 0.01) and positive lymph node status (p = 0.01). However, there was no significant association with age, menopausal status, histopathological grade and hormone receptor status. This study showed that higher expression of hTERT in tumor tissue and its significant association with advanced stage of disease and metastasis may serve it as a molecular marker for adverse disease outcome and a predictor of high telomerase activity in tumor tissues.
    Yimeng Lu, Xingkai Meng, and Jun Li*
    Objectives: Based on establishing the animal model of hepatic jejunal anastomosis, the degree of anastomosis solidity, histological characteristics, postoperative complications were investigated after hepatic jejunal anastomosis.
    Methods: SPF SD rats were randomly divided into 4 groups (6 in each group). Liver function was detected at the 1st, 7th, and 14th days after surgery. The volume of bleeding, infection, anastomotic leakage, and the bursting pressure was measured in the 7th day and 14th day after operation. Histological examination was performed to assess the pathological morphological changes of the anastomosis.
    Results: All animals survived well and there were no abnormalities in appetite and activity. There was no significant difference in AST and ALT. Complications such as infection, bleeding, anastomotic leakage, and intestinal obstruction were not observed. The anastomotic healing was good. Histological examination showed that the surface of the intestinal mucosa villi epithelium was intact, and the intestinal wall serous layer was adhered to the hepatic lobule. Lymphocyte infiltration, granulation tissue and many new capillary blood vessels can be observed.
    Conclusion: Hepatic jejunal anastomosis has sufficient healing fastness, which could be used as the new biliary reconstruction method is used in clinic to make up for the past deficiencies.
    Special Issue on Lung Cancer China
    Short Communication
    Wanqing Chen*, Rongshou Zheng, Hongmei Zeng and Siwei Zhang
    Cancer is an emerging health issue in China and many other countries of the world. Lung cancer is the first leading cancer diagnosed and cause of cancer death for many years in China with a rapid increasing trend during the past several decades [1,2]. The incidence rate of lung cancer in China was relatively higher and also increasing with a more rapid rate than in western countries. Lots of risk factors such as cigarette smoking, air pollution has been proved as the risk factor of the disease [3-6].
    Review Article
    Jingjing Liu, Ying Cheng*, Hui Li and Shuang Zhang
    Abstract: Small Cell Lung Cancer (SCLC) account for almost 15% of lung cancers, which is strongly associated with cigarette smoking. It has a high propensity for early metastatic dissemination. Since few improvements in treatment effectiveness have been seen over the past 30 years new treatment strategies for improving therapeutic effect were urgently needed. China is the second most populous in the world and has many smokers. The morbidity and mortality of lung cancer are higher than the worldwide average. Because the government didn't take effective measures for smoking cessation, so the morbidity of SCLC has no downward trend. The progresses of studies in SCLC are slowly, such as diagnose, treatment and translational medicine. In recent years, with the emphasis of the society and the public on early diagnosis and early treatment of tumors and the progress of medical diagnosis technology, Chinese scholars have made many attempts in the treatment and research of SCLC.
    Xiu-Yi Zhi1*, Xiao-Nong Zou2, Mu Hu1, Yuan Jiang3 and You-lin Qiao4
    Abstract: In recent decades the age-specific mortalities of lung cancer in China have been increased to 9 times in men and women and it become one of the most important public health issues. The high prevalence of smoking in men and more than 70% of nonsmokers, both men and women, could be the biggest contributable factor for those consequences. While the abundant evidence on the health risks of exposure to smoking were available in both international and domestic studies the awareness on the health hazards from tobacco use were quit low in Chinese peoples, even in the health providers. Changes in the contents and the process of the tobacco products in Chinese tobacco product markets were accompanied by increased numbers of the lung cancer cases, increased adenocarcinoma and decreased squamous cell carcinoma of the lung, rather than reducing the overall lung cancer cases. Those suggested that comprehensive smoking-free policy should be implemented in all public places and the process of smoking-free legislation should put forward to create the legal environment and provide effective protection for reducing the incidence of lung cancer. Popularized health education should be also enhanced to raise the public awareness on smoking hazards.
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