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  • ISSN: 2373-9436
    Early Online
    Volume 8, Issue 1
    Research Article
    Serkan Akan and Caner Ediz*
    Objective: In this study, we examined histopathologically the tumour components or combinations of these components and analysed to changes of pathological findings with aging in the patients diagnosed with testicular mixed germ cell tumour (MGCT) in the last 10 years.
    Materials and methods: 207 patients who underwent radical inguinal orchiectomy due to testicular cancer between 2010 and 2019 were retrospectively reviewed and 107 cases with MGCT whose data were fully available were included in the study. Age, primary tumour localization, primary tumour size, histopathological components and combinations of these components were analyzed. To compare the change of tumour components with aging, patients were divided into two groups according to patients age, Group 1 was younger than 25 years of age and group 2 was = 25 years old.
    Results: The mean age of the patients was 24.67 4.31 years. Tumour component of MGCT included embryonal carcinoma in 87 patients (81.3%), teratoma in 72 patients (67.3%), yolk sac carcinoma in 66 patients (61.7%), choriocarcinoma in 17 patients (15.9%) and seminoma in 44 patients (41.1%). Current combination of these tumours was analyzed and the most common combination was found as embryonal carcinoma + teratoma + yolk sac carcinoma in 26 patients (24.3%) and the second most common combination was found as embryonal carcinoma + seminoma in 17 patients (15.9%). The incidence of three or more components was significantly higher in group 2 (57.8%) than in group 1 (51.6%) (p<0.05). The mean follow-up of the patients was 43.37 months (3-113) and 2 patients died for testicular cancer in follow-up period.
    Conclusion: In 10-year series, the most common MGCT component was found as embryonal carcinoma and teratoma, while the most common combination was embryonal carcinoma + teratoma + yolk sac carcinoma. Combination of three or more components in MGCT may be more reported with increasing age (especially over 25 years old).
    Nicholas M. Schlaeger, Carmen Berkan, Ingrid Albu, Aaron P. Monte, and Cheng-chen Huang*
    Within melanoma tumors are a small subpopulation of cells called cancer stem cells (CSC). They can be categorized by two fundamental properties, self-renewal and differentiation. CSC play a vital role in metastasis, tumor relapse and chemotherapeutic resistance. Here we identified compounds that seem to specifically target the melanoma CSC population. B16F10 mouse melanoma cells treated with synthetic compounds SK0408 or SK0459 first showed reduction of proliferation in the MTT and anti-phophohistone H3 immunostaining assays. Western blotting revealed that SK0408 and SK0459 has no effect on phosphorylated MAPK level but significant decrease of phophorylated Akt and increase of phosphorylated b-catenin. Using melanoma stem cell markers CD133, CD271, and CD20, we found that SK0408 and SK0459 indeed cause a 54-79% reduction in the melanoma stem cells population. Cell invasion assay showed reduced metastatic potential in treated cells. Furthermore, we observed an increase of the epithelial marker E-cadherin but a decrease in the mesenchymal marker vimentin in the treated cells. Additionally, western blotting and RT-qPCR showed an elevated level of differentiation gene expression of Pax-3, MITF, DCT, and tyrosinase. Our results demonstrate the therapeutic potential of these compounds in suppressing melanoma cell growth and metastasis by reducing melanoma stem cells through promoting melanocyte differentiation.
    Special Issue on Lung Cancer China
    Short Communication
    Wanqing Chen*, Rongshou Zheng, Hongmei Zeng and Siwei Zhang
    Cancer is an emerging health issue in China and many other countries of the world. Lung cancer is the first leading cancer diagnosed and cause of cancer death for many years in China with a rapid increasing trend during the past several decades [1,2]. The incidence rate of lung cancer in China was relatively higher and also increasing with a more rapid rate than in western countries. Lots of risk factors such as cigarette smoking, air pollution has been proved as the risk factor of the disease [3-6].
    Review Article
    Jingjing Liu, Ying Cheng*, Hui Li and Shuang Zhang
    Abstract: Small Cell Lung Cancer (SCLC) account for almost 15% of lung cancers, which is strongly associated with cigarette smoking. It has a high propensity for early metastatic dissemination. Since few improvements in treatment effectiveness have been seen over the past 30 years new treatment strategies for improving therapeutic effect were urgently needed. China is the second most populous in the world and has many smokers. The morbidity and mortality of lung cancer are higher than the worldwide average. Because the government didn't take effective measures for smoking cessation, so the morbidity of SCLC has no downward trend. The progresses of studies in SCLC are slowly, such as diagnose, treatment and translational medicine. In recent years, with the emphasis of the society and the public on early diagnosis and early treatment of tumors and the progress of medical diagnosis technology, Chinese scholars have made many attempts in the treatment and research of SCLC.
    Xiu-Yi Zhi1*, Xiao-Nong Zou2, Mu Hu1, Yuan Jiang3 and You-lin Qiao4
    Abstract: In recent decades the age-specific mortalities of lung cancer in China have been increased to 9 times in men and women and it become one of the most important public health issues. The high prevalence of smoking in men and more than 70% of nonsmokers, both men and women, could be the biggest contributable factor for those consequences. While the abundant evidence on the health risks of exposure to smoking were available in both international and domestic studies the awareness on the health hazards from tobacco use were quit low in Chinese peoples, even in the health providers. Changes in the contents and the process of the tobacco products in Chinese tobacco product markets were accompanied by increased numbers of the lung cancer cases, increased adenocarcinoma and decreased squamous cell carcinoma of the lung, rather than reducing the overall lung cancer cases. Those suggested that comprehensive smoking-free policy should be implemented in all public places and the process of smoking-free legislation should put forward to create the legal environment and provide effective protection for reducing the incidence of lung cancer. Popularized health education should be also enhanced to raise the public awareness on smoking hazards.
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