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  • ISSN: 2373-9436
    Early Online
    Volume 6, Issue 2
    Research Article
    Razmik Mirzayans*, Bonnie Andrais, and David Murray
    Solid tumors and solid tumor-derived cell lines typically contain a small proportion of giant cells with a highly enlarged nucleus or multiple nuclei. Although giant cells enter a state of dormancy and cease to proliferate, they exhibit resistance to anticancer agents, secrete growth-promoting factors, and can give rise to progeny with stem cell-like properties that can repopulate the tumor. In the present study we determined the response of the MDA-MB-231 breast carcinoma cell line to chemotherapeutic drugs in terms of proliferation, morphology and metabolic activity. We report that treatment with moderate (non-toxic) concentrations of oxaliplatin (=10 M) or paclitaxel (=20 nM) triggers proliferation arrest which largely reflects the development of giant cells that remain adherent to the culture dish, retain viability, and exhibit the ability to convert 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyl-tetrazolium bromide (MTT) to its water insoluble formazan metabolite. The single-cell MTT assay demonstrated that the metabolic activity per cell is much higher (>3 times) in drug-treated cultures, which are enriched with giant cells, than in sham-treated controls. These results give credence to a growing body of evidence suggesting that targeting dormant cancer cells could be a critical strategy for minimizing the chance of relapse following conventional cancer treatment.
    SP Suchitra*, R Nagarathna, and HR Nagendra
    Background: Ayurveda asserts that, the increase or decrease in the status of tridosha (Vata, Pitta, Kapha) is the cause for the manifestation of all the diseases. Cancer is explained as Arbuda and vata and kapha vriddhi (increase) is referred as cause by Ayurveda classics. Studies are available on the relationship between prakrti (constitution) of an individual and diseases. No studies are available on vitiation of tridosha.
    Method: Design of the study was descriptive type. Sampling design was purposive sampling. Tridosha diagnosis scale (TDS), interviewer based, which consists 97 items: for Vtaja vriddhi, 14 items for Vata kshaya: 16 items for Pittaja vriddhi, 11 items for Pitta Kshaya: 20 items for Kaphaja vriddhi and 15 items for Kapha kshaya: was developed which had reliability above 0.7 for all subscales of TDS. TDS was administered on 5 cancer patients, (three were lung cancer, two were of liver cancer) recruited from Arogyadhama hospital of SVYASA university, Bangalore.
    Results: It was found that, there were more vata vriddhi and kapha vriddhi laskhanas in cancer patients (more than 40%) in both vata vriddhi and kapha vriddhi scales. Conclusions: The present study has given good basis for further study on larger samples to confirm statistically the findings of study which may in turn may point for specific plan and diet regime based on tridosha.
    Raju Vivek*
    The breast cancer is a disease in which malignant cells form in the tissues of the breast and leading to death among the woman in worldwide. Early detection of breast cancer is a challenging to the breast cancer therapeutics, because of the different patterns of the breast cancers includes, Hormone receptor-positive (ER+ and/or PR+), Receptor HER2-positive; and Triple-negative breast cancer (TNBCs) types. These ER+, PR+ and HER2+ marker proteins also serve as breast cancer therapeutic targets of specific therapeutics. Tumors with none of these ER-, PR-, HER2- are known as TNBCs. In this review, the author deliberated the current status, different types of breast cancers, risk factors associated with breast cancers, treatment strategies, and side effects of the breast cancer treatments. At the end of this review overall future outlook of the breast cancer treatments and its future nanoparticles, peptides and PROTACs - based therapeutic approaches are well discussed.
    Review Article
    O'Shea J* and Vernimmen F
    Schwannomas being benign tumours of the nerve sheath are usually treated with surgery. For intracranial schwannomas, especially acoustic neuromas, the role of stereotactic radiotherapy is well established as a viable alternative. For other sites the role of stereotactic irradiation is less well established, however based on experience in the successful use of dose/fractionation schedules in the management of acoustic neuromas there may be merit in their application to extracranial sites when lesions are deemed irresectable. Given the carcinogenic nature of radiation, care must be applied, when treating benign conditions, where the ultimate goal is to maintain a normal life expectancy. This risk of a secondary malignancy is low and can be further reduced by the use of proton therapy which has a lower integral dose. The increasing number of proton therapy facilities worldwide should allow better access to this advantageous radiation modality.
    Khedr R*, Emad A, Hamed AA, and Hafez HA
    Cancer is known as a set of diseases that, when the prognosis is not favorable for the patients, it ends in death. Clinically three phases of cancer have been described: initiation, promotion and progression. In this context, the molecular involvement in these phases is described: first, the single or multiple mutations at DNA trigger cell transformation; the second step refers to the process of tumor growth, and the latter to the invasive process. Although these terms are well known, molecular processes following a specific order within each of these three phases are explained: mutagenesis, carcinogenesis, tumorigenesis, angiogenesis, and metastasis. Severe mutations commit a healthy cell to transformation, becoming therefore in a cancerous cell with altered metabolism and being able to proliferate unlimitedly to form a tumor mass. This tumor increases its size and stimulates the vascularization for nutrition. At the end of the process, individual cancerous cells escape towards new tissues, making it difficult their localization and compromising vital functions.
    Research Article
    Khedr R*, Emad A, Hamed AA, and Hafez HA
    Background: Survival in childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) has steadily improved with increasing attention to the importance of reducing infection-related mortality. This study investigates the frequency and mortality rates of treatment-related toxicity and its impact on the timely application of chemotherapy regimens during induction and consolidation therapy in pediatric patients with ALL.
    Procedure: This retrospective cohort study analyzed patients below the age of 18 years with ALL, receiving chemotherapy for remission induction and consolidation therapy. We evaluated the frequency of infectious complications and invasive fungal infection, treatment given and outcome. Treatment delay due to fungal infection was reported.
    Results: During the study period, 96 patients were reported. Infection was reported in 42 patients (43.7 %), 19 patients (19.8%) had probable fungal infection, 13 (13.5%) with documented bacterial sepsis, and 10 (10.4%) with soft tissue infections. The total deaths during induction and consolidation were 16 patients (16.70%) (All of them died during induction), the most common cause of death was sepsis (9.4%), followed by fungal infection (3.1%). The median duration of treatment delay during induction and consolidation therapy was 31 days in patients with invasive fungal infection compared to 8 days without IFI (P.<0.001).
    Conclusion: Infectious complications during induction therapy are still a major problem affecting the outcome of the childhood ALL. The high incidence and the mortality rate of fungal infections during ALL induction as well as their impact on chemotherapy schedule may call for the antifungal prophylaxis during this phase of treatment.
    Special Issue on Lung Cancer China
    Short Communication
    Wanqing Chen*, Rongshou Zheng, Hongmei Zeng and Siwei Zhang
    Cancer is an emerging health issue in China and many other countries of the world. Lung cancer is the first leading cancer diagnosed and cause of cancer death for many years in China with a rapid increasing trend during the past several decades [1,2]. The incidence rate of lung cancer in China was relatively higher and also increasing with a more rapid rate than in western countries. Lots of risk factors such as cigarette smoking, air pollution has been proved as the risk factor of the disease [3-6].
    Review Article
    Jingjing Liu, Ying Cheng*, Hui Li and Shuang Zhang
    Abstract: Small Cell Lung Cancer (SCLC) account for almost 15% of lung cancers, which is strongly associated with cigarette smoking. It has a high propensity for early metastatic dissemination. Since few improvements in treatment effectiveness have been seen over the past 30 years new treatment strategies for improving therapeutic effect were urgently needed. China is the second most populous in the world and has many smokers. The morbidity and mortality of lung cancer are higher than the worldwide average. Because the government didn't take effective measures for smoking cessation, so the morbidity of SCLC has no downward trend. The progresses of studies in SCLC are slowly, such as diagnose, treatment and translational medicine. In recent years, with the emphasis of the society and the public on early diagnosis and early treatment of tumors and the progress of medical diagnosis technology, Chinese scholars have made many attempts in the treatment and research of SCLC.
    Xiu-Yi Zhi1*, Xiao-Nong Zou2, Mu Hu1, Yuan Jiang3 and You-lin Qiao4
    Abstract: In recent decades the age-specific mortalities of lung cancer in China have been increased to 9 times in men and women and it become one of the most important public health issues. The high prevalence of smoking in men and more than 70% of nonsmokers, both men and women, could be the biggest contributable factor for those consequences. While the abundant evidence on the health risks of exposure to smoking were available in both international and domestic studies the awareness on the health hazards from tobacco use were quit low in Chinese peoples, even in the health providers. Changes in the contents and the process of the tobacco products in Chinese tobacco product markets were accompanied by increased numbers of the lung cancer cases, increased adenocarcinoma and decreased squamous cell carcinoma of the lung, rather than reducing the overall lung cancer cases. Those suggested that comprehensive smoking-free policy should be implemented in all public places and the process of smoking-free legislation should put forward to create the legal environment and provide effective protection for reducing the incidence of lung cancer. Popularized health education should be also enhanced to raise the public awareness on smoking hazards.
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