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  • ISSN: 2373-9436
    Volume 1, Issue 2
    September/October 2013
    Mauro Niso*
    Sigma receptors are a distinct class of receptors that are found in many tumors and normal tissues and have been associated with many cellular and organ processes, including motor function, endocrine function, proliferation, immunoregulation and ion channel modulation [1]. There are two types of sigma receptors, sigma-1 and sigma-2.
    Norishige Yamada1,2* and Suguru Yonezawa1
    In the past, cancer development was generally considered to be a disease that is caused by genetic alterations (e.g., mutations, chromosomal abnormalities) in tumor-suppressor genes and/or oncogenes. However, it has become increasingly apparent that cancer is also caused by epigenetic changes.
    Elizabeth A. Guancial*
    Muscle-invasive bladder cancer (MIBC) is a lethal disease for which cytotoxic, platinum-based chemotherapy remains the standard of care. Recent insights into the genomic landscape of MIBC reveal a highly heterogeneous disease. As a result, targeted therapies have yet to demonstrate significant clinical benefit for the majority of patients. While cisplatin-based neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NAC) has a proven overall survival (OS) benefit for MIBC, use of this treatment has been limited by perceived lack of benefit and risk of toxicity. However, OS is significantly improved for patients who experience a pathologic complete response to NAC. Predictive biomarkers of platinum-sensitivity could have a substantial impact on clinical outcomes for MIBC through the identification of patients most likely to respond to NAC.
    Clinical Image
    Corey Metcalf and Diego Villa*
    A 54-year-old premenopausal woman underwent left mastectomy and sentinel lymph node biopsy for extensive ductal carcinoma in-situ with microinvasive estrogen receptor negative and HER2 overexpressing breast cancer, without nodal involvement. She did not receive adjuvant systemic or radiation therapy. She presented two years later with severe cerebellar ataxia, diplopia, blurred vision, nausea, and headache. Computed tomography scan showed abnormal left axillary and retropectoral lymph nodes as well as a small sclerotic lesion in the L3 vertebra. Biopsy of a left axillary lymph node was significant for estrogen receptor negative and HER2 positive intraductal carcinoma.
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