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  • ISSN: 2373-9436
    Volume 1, Issue 3
    November/December 2013
    Editorial
    Hisaharu Oya*, Masahiko Koike, Daisuke Kobayashi, Naoki Iwata, Yukiko Niwa, Kouzi Torii, Naoki Mashita, Mitsuro Kanda, Chie Tanaka, Suguru Yamada, Tsutomu Fujii, Goro Nakayama, Hiroyuki Sugimoto, Shuji Nomoto, Michitaka Fujiwara, and Yasuhiro Kodera
    Now an aging society is coming in the world. In the United States, it is estimated that the percentage of people 65 years and older will increase from 13% to more than 20% of the total population by 2030. As a result, the elderly cancer patients have been rapidly increasing, and the number of deaths due to cancer. Elderly patients have significantly higher rates per population of patient surgical and nonsurgical procedures vs other age groups. What effect will aging baby boomers and their increased desire for surgery have on our nation's health care system? What many refer to as the Silver Tsunami, the dramatic aging of the American population, will be the greatest factor affecting health care in our lifetime. The entire health care system in general is not taking this coming challenge seriously enough. We need more geriatricians and surgeons to give older patients the specialized care they need.
    Short Communication
    Annie Wu3-5, Lei Zheng2-7* and Qian Xiao1,3,5,7*
    Abstract: Drug-resistance remains one of the main challenges for cancer chemotherapy. The failure of treatments due to drug-resistant tumors accounts for much of the relapse and cancer mortality seen today. What makes it challenging to address this issue is that tumor resistance to anticancer drugs has multiple and complex mechanisms, shaped by the intrinsic tumor cell and environmental context in which it has developed. At the primary tumor site, a heterogeneous population of cells may contain tumor cells that are inherently chemoresistant even before treatment (intrinsic resistance). Other tumor cells are initially responsive, but acquire mutations that allow rapid resistance to therapeutic agents (secondary resistance). The following review will conceptually classify the mechanisms of secondary drug resistance into 1) cellular mechanisms in tumor cells promoting drug-resistance and 2) extracellular mechanisms prohibiting drugs from gaining access to tumor cells. We will also discuss strategies to address these drug resistance mechanisms.
    Research Article
    Tammy A. Morrish1*, Dulat Bekbolysnov1,2, David Velliquette1, Michelle Morgan1, Bryan Ross1, Yongheng Wang3, Benjamin Chaney1, Jessica McQuigg1, Nathan Fager1 and Ira P. Maine1
    Abstract: The unlimited growth potential of tumors depends on telomere maintenance and typically depends on telomerase, an RNA-dependent DNA polymerase, which reverse transcribes the telomerase RNA template, synthesizing telomere repeats at the ends of chromosomes. Studies in various model organisms genetically deleted for telomerase indicate that several recombination-based mechanisms also contribute to telomere maintenance. Understanding the molecular basis of these mechanisms is critical since some human tumors form without telomerase, yet the sequence is maintained at the telomeres. Recombination-based mechanisms also likely contribute at some frequency to telomere maintenance in tumors expressing telomerase. Preventing telomere maintenance is predicted to impact tumor growth, yet inhibiting telomerase may select for the recombination-based mechanisms. Telomere recombination mechanisms likely involve altered or unregulated pathways of DNA repair. The use of some DNA damaging agents may encourage the use of these unregulated pathways of DNA repair to be utilized and may allow some tumors to generate resistance to these agents depending on which repair pathways are altered in the tumors. This review will discuss the various telomere recombination mechanisms and will provide rationale regarding the possibility that L1 retrotransposition may contribute to telomere maintenance in tumors lacking telomerase.
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