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  • ISSN: 2373-9436
    Volume 2, Issue 1
    Review Article
    Hakim DN1, Sood A1, Kulendran M2*, Chang TP2, Caris JA2 and Darzi A2
    Abstract: Colorectal cancer is the 3rd most commonly diagnosed cancer within the United States and the 2nd leading cause of cancer-related deaths in the US in 2008. The survival rate for patients suffering from CRC is directly proportional to the stage of detection. Timely and accurate detection of CRC is only possible through an organised screening programme. The evidence for currently used CRC screening methods including faecal tests (gFOBT and FIT) and complete structural exams (FSIG, colonoscopy, and DCBE) are reviewed in detail. Furthermore strategies for increasing screening rate and newer technologies including Computerized Tomographic Colongraphy (CTC) and Confocal Laser Endomicroscopy (CME) are also discussed.
    Dipesh Kumar Yadav1, Cai-de LU1* and Rajesh Kumar Yadav2
    Abstract: Pancreatic cancer is one of the deadliest human malignancies and little progress has been achieved in its treatment over the past decades. Historically, chemotherapy or radiotherapy did not provide significant survival benefit in advanced pancreatic cancer. Thus, new therapeutic approaches are needed. As there is strong evidence that pancreatic cancer elicits antitumor immune responses, scientists have tried to stimulate the antitumour activities of the immune system to fight against pancreatic cancer, but has not reached to expected result. Pancreatic cancer activates both antitumor immune responses and immunosuppressive mechanisms leading to tumor development and progression. This action is achieved through mobilization and activation of immune suppressive cells (CAFs), tolerogenic DCs, MDSCs, TAMs, Treg cells and cancer cells-derived soluble factors that promote the induction of tolerance through the generation of CD4+a chain of IL-2R (CD25)+ fork head box P3 (Foxp3) subset. Vaccine therapy relies on the administration of biological preparations that include an antigen that is specifically expressed by malignant cells, boosting the natural ability of the immune system to react against neoplastic cells. Potent vaccines stimulate antigen presentation by dendritic cells, hence driving the expansion of antigen-specific effector and memory T cells. In this paper we analyze recent preclinical and clinical efforts towards vaccine therapy for pancreatic cancer designed to target pancreatic cancer-associated antigens and to elicit an antitumor response in vivo.
    Case Report
    Vito Catalanotti1,2#, Valentina Bertaglia1,3#, Noor Tariq1 and Raffaele Califano1,4*
    Abstract: Ball valve effect is an unusual albeit life threatening phenomenon resulting in tension pneumothorax in extreme cases. We report a case of a patient with extensive stage small cell lung cancer who developed type 1 respiratory failure, during his first cycle of palliative chemotherapy. A Computed Tomography Pulmonary Angiogram (CTPA) did not show any evidence of pulmonary emboli but showed significant narrowing of the right main bronchus causing ‘ball valve' effect with hyperinflation of right lung and compression of the left lung. A ball valve effect (BVE) is a partial obstruction which causes an inflow of air during the inspiration phase of breathing and, on the other hand, as expiration begins, prevents outflow. Despite is rare, it is important to consider ball-valve effect among differential diagnosis for patients with lung cancer presenting with acute respiratory failure as this is a reversible cause. Delay or failure to diagnose it can lead to tension pneumothorax and cardiac arrest.
    Short Communication
    Adam Sharp and Catherine Harper-Wynne*
    Breast cancer is the most common cancer in women worldwide with around 1 in 9 women developing breast cancer during their lifetime [1,2]. In the United States of America 230,000 women were diagnosed with breast cancer in 2013 [2]. 16-20% of women present with Advanced Breast Cancer (ABC) and despite improving adjuvant therapies 40% of early breast cancer (EBC) patients will develop metastatic disease [3]. Using current therapies 39,000 women died as a result of their breast cancer in 2013. There is therefore the need to develop and improve therapeutic strategies for the treatment of ABC.
    Research Article
    Sheila Figel Dwyer and Irwin H Gelman*
    Abstract: P38-regulated and activated kinase (PRAK/MAPKAPK5) is a serine/threonine kinase which lies downstream of the p38 and ERK3/4 MAP kinase pathways. PRAK plays diverse roles in the processes of cell growth, nutrient starvation response, programmed cell death, senescence and motility. PRAK has been shown to both promote and inhibit cell motility in different contexts. The pro-motility functions of PRAK are attributed mainly to cytoskeletal rearrangement occurring downstream of its phosphorylated substrate HSP27; however, it was recently shown that PRAK is required for motility in endothelial cells upstream of Focal adhesion kinase (FAK). Along with Src, FAK functions as a mediator of motility signaling through the phosphorylation of substrates in focal adhesions. Here, we show that PRAK, initially identified as a FAK substrate in an in situ/ kinase overlay assay, is a Src substrate, the phosphorylation of which directs PRAK to focal adhesions. Focal adhesion localization of PRAK was not found to affect cell motility, however transient over expression of PRAK inhibited motility in HeLa cells. This effect requires PRAK kinase activity and proceeds through an impairment of FAK activation via phosphorylation on Y861. Our studies demonstrate for the first time that PRAK is regulated by tyrosine phosphorylation, localizes to focal adhesions, and interacts physically with and can phosphorylate FAK/Src. Further we provide a novel mechanism for the inhibition of motility downstream of PRAK.
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