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  • ISSN: 2373-9436
    Volume 2, Issue 2
    Editorial
    Mesut Tez*
    Cancer, especially epithelial cancer (lung, breast, colon etc.), is the most important global public health problem [1]. Understanding of the mechanism of cancer has been gaining momentum for some years on account of its high incidence and impact on the lives of individuals' affected. There are a number of theories of carcinogenesis and these theories may be used to justify various alternative cancer treatments [2,3]. The small variations in cancer mortality observed during the previous years indicate that the clinical applications of these theories have been very limited.
    Genevieve Dall1,2, Robin Anderson2,3 and Kara Britt1,2,3*
    Abstract: Parity (childbearing) significantly decreases a woman's risk of breast cancer. Several factors within the mammary gland are postulated to contribute to parity-induced protection including (but not restricted to), a reduction in the number of mammary stem cells (MaSCs). This review will explore whether the protection afforded by parity is specific to certain breast cancer subtypes or is influenced by hormone receptor status. We will discuss how additional reproductive factors such as multiple births, a young age at first full term birth, and breastfeeding can also impact protection. We specifically assess whether the beneficial effects of early childbearing are mediated by changes in the MaSC population, which are thought to be abundant in the young breast. Finally we provide an update on the in-vivo work being performed in mice to directly investigate the effect of parity on MaSC and then discuss whether these findings provide evidence for the MaSCs being key mediators of parity-associated protection against breast cancer.
    Perspective
    Joseph Markowitz1* and William E. Carson III2*
    Patients with pancreatic adenocarcinoma face many quality of life issues. Prior to the development of the FOLFIRINOX (5-FU, irinotecan, oxaliplatin, and leucovorin) [1,2] and gemcitabine/nab-paclitaxel [3] chemotherapeutic regimens the survival of patients with metastatic disease was on the order of 6 months. These two newer regimens increased the overall survival to an average of 11.1 and 8.5 months, respectively. Quality of life should be stabilized at the highest possible level with chemotherapy to postpone deterioration in functional status [4]. It has also been shown that pain and tiredness are independent survival prognostic indicators [5]. For these reasons, treatment for pancreatic cancer must take into account quality of life measures.
    Sandeep Satapathy*
    Abstract: Stem cells are differentially modulated and fated by the influence of their microenvironment, commonly known as ‘stem cell niche'. Studies of stem cell niche transformation leading to its malignancy and signaling molecules involved therein, is greatly limited by the fading boundaries of distinction between the existing cancerous cells and the de-novo transformed cells of the stem cell niche. The potent question being addressed in this communication focuses on developing new strategies to limit the malignant transformation of stem cells using andrographolide (a plant derived compound), which has been extensively used in Indian and Chinese traditional medicine. In this study we try to extend the inhibiting effect of andrographolide on Interleukin-6 (IL-6) expression (both mRNA and protein) leading to the onset of a wide range of anti-cancerous and chemo-protective biological functions.
    Case Report
    Aleksandra Kuczmarska1*, Megha D. Patel1 and Nalini Mehta2
    Abstract: Primary squamous cell carcinoma of the thyroid represents less than 1% of all thyroid malignancies. Unlike other thyroid cancers, it is often fatal. We report a rare case of a male patient with primary squamous cell carcinoma of the thyroid. This paper emphasizes the importance of fine needle aspiration in diagnosis, the urgency of early diagnosis and the importance of multi-modality treatment.
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