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  • ISSN: 2373-9436
    Volume 2, Issue 3
    Mini Review
    Srikanth Kaithoju*
    Abstract: Epigenetic approach in treating different diseases has gained importance as the inhibition of the enzymes involved in epigenetic modifications can reverse the disease condition. The major epigenetic markers include DNA methylation, histone acetylation and methylation that alter chromatin structure resulting in changes in cellular functions. The DNA methylation and histone modifications in cancer cells are thought to be important in tumorigenesis and the epigenome modifying enzymes are considered as epigenetic targets in cancer drug discovery. This review will discuss about different epigenetic dysregulations in tumors as well as epigenetic targets for drug discovery and development of novel cancer agents. This article also highlights the recent success in identifying new epigenetic targets and cancer epigenetic drug discovery.
    Review Article
    Puri L and Saba J*
    Abstract: Cytogenetic abnormalities including the gain and loss of chromosomes play an important role in oncogenesis. Aberrations involving chromosome 1 are one of the most common anomalies reported among human neoplasms and have been observed in both solid tumors and hematological malignancies. This review highlights the prognostic import of cytogenetic abnormalities involving 1q in childhood cancers and weighs the evidence supporting some candidate genes that may underlie this phenomenon. Gain of chromosome 1q has been frequently noted in pediatric malignancies including Wilms tumor, neuroblastoma, Ewing sarcoma and brain tumors such as ependymoma and high grade gliomas and the presence of this anomaly is usually associated with disease recurrence and poor prognosis. Risk stratifications incorporating the presence or absence of additional 1q material are being integrated into many clinical management protocols. However the candidate genes on the long arm of chromosome 1 that serve as drivers of tumorigenesis still remain unidentified. Identification of these candidate genes and characterization of their specific functions may potentially help scientists develop therapeutic strategies that could improve prognosis in patients whose malignant cells harbor additional 1q material.
    Elumelu T.N1,2*, Folasire AM1,2, Ntekim AI1,2 and Oboh O2
    Abstract:
    Objective: This study was carried out to examine the pattern and treatment outcomes of salivary gland tumors in Nigerian patients attending Radiotherapy clinic at the University College Hospital, Ibadan.
    Methodology: Retrospective review of clinical records of patients with salivary gland tumors seen in the Department of Radiotherapy UCH Ibadan, from 2001-2010 was done. Information collected included bio data, tumor site histology, degree of differentiation, and survival among others.
    Results: 108 cases of histologically diagnosed salivary gland tumors were recorded in the department in a 10 year period. The commonest recorded presenting complaint was facial swelling seen in all the 108 patients. Mucoepidermoid was the most common histological type in 40 (37.0%) of the cases. Social habits such as tobacco smoking and alcohol consumption did not have any strong association with development of these tumors. The stage at presentation, histology and grading were found to be of prognostic significance.
    Conclusion: This study shows that salivary gland tumors are not common in our environment; almost 50% of the patients presenting with locally advanced, fungating disease, usually inoperable and treatment intent is more of palliation. A high index of suspicion by the primary physician is required to improve early detection and treatment. There is a need for establishment of multidisciplinary tumor board for ease of referral and management of these patients for better control.
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