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  • ISSN: 2373-9436
    Volume 4, Issue 3
    Research Article
    Kalyani R*, Najmunnisa Sharief, and Shameem Shariff
    Background: Cervical cancer accounts for the fourth most common cancer in women worldwide. Pap smear test is one of the best tests to screen for cervical cancer and enables detection in its premalignant stage. The objective of this study was to find out the prevalence of abnormal Pap smears in a tertiary care hospital and correlate with histology wherever possible.
    Methods: Cases were collected from archives of Department of Pathology from Jan 2013 to June 2015. A total of 1501 Pap smears were analyzed.
    Results: The mean age of the patients was 40.26 ± 10.72 years. Most of them were of age group 30-39 years (32.06%) followed by 40-49, 20-29 and 50-59 years (28.13%, 17.33% and 11.53% respectively). A total of 1234 (82.2%) samples were adequate for evaluation, whereas 267 (17.8%) samples were inadequate for evaluation due to low cellularity and obscurement by inflammatory cells and blood. Of 1234 smears, 1197 smears (96.92%) were negative for intraepithelial lesion and 38 smears (3.08%) were positive for intraepithelial lesion. These 38 cases included ASC-US (1.46%), ASC-H (0.32%), LSIL (0.24%), HSIL (0.41%), AGC (0.24%) and carcinoma (0.41%). ASC/SIL ratio was 2.75. Transformation zone with intraepithelial lesion was seen in 65.79% cases. About 109 biopsies could be retrieved and co-related with corresponding Pap smear, for which sensitivity was 45%, specificity 87.6%, false positive rate 12.4%, false negative rate 55%, positive predictive value 0.45% and negative predictive value 0.67%.
    Conclusion: Pap smear is still a relatively good method in screening cervical cancers in developing countries. Smears positive for intraepithelial lesions has to be co-related with histopathology for further management.
    Review Article
    Guilherme Petito*, Igor Godinho Portis, and Anamaria Donato de Castro Petito
    With the advancement of molecular biology and knowledge about genetic aspects in recent decades the study of the processes that determine the emergence, evolution and prognosis of tumors in different tissues and body regions, has become increasingly necessary and crucial for the approach of better treatment, cure or relief that improve the quality of life of cancer patients. Damage in TP16, TP53 and RB genes are related to various tumors squamous cell, and studies have shown their relationship with head and neck carcinomas. Risk factors such as smoking, alcohol consumption and the presence of human papilloma virus in the affected tissue influence the pathophysiology of these tumors, especially over action in these genes or on their products. This brief study meant to address issues of concern that has been studied about the genetics of cancer of the oral cavity and oropharynx, considered the most prevalent and incident of head and neck carcinomas group.
    Zhu SS and Luo LZ*
    Cancer is a generic term for a large group of diseases that can affect any part of the body. Metastasis is the spread of cancer to other locations in the body. Almost all cancers can metastasize resulting in the major cause of human death. Retinoic acid (RA) is essential for normal regulation of various biological processes including development, differentiation, proliferation, and apoptosis, and also defined as a potent suppressor of the proliferation of cancer cells and has been discovered inhibit various signaling pathways in tumors. Some reports have been found that lack of RA to relate with tumor development and cellular migration Lots of cellular pathways, including Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway, are related to cancer metastasis. Many reports have suggested that exaggerated Wnt signaling can lead to cancer initiation and progression in a wide range of human tissues. Dysregulated Wnt/β-catenin signaling in cancers appear to more invasive to develop to mesenchymal cells and will undergo metastasis at last. The development of new therapeutic compounds targeting the Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway promises new hope to eliminate cancers, especially metastasis cancers by natural and synthetic RA. In this review, we provide a highlighting various RA in regulates the Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway. The mechanism of its anti-tumor effect can be considered as a therapeutic option.
    Case Report
    Dimitrios K. Nasikas*, George H. Sakorafas, Michael Sofopoulos, and Niki Arnogiannaki
    Malignant solitary fibrous tumor, previously known as hemangiopericytoma (HPC), is a rare spindle-cell mesenchymal tumor of probable fibroblastic derivation. It usually affects serosal surfaces and the pleura although extrapleural sites have been reported. We report here a case of a 56 year old male, admitted in our clinic for the management of an enlarged mass of the right distal femur. Histopathologic analysis of the surgical specimen retrieved a diagnosis consistent with a malignant solitary fibrous tumor, in R0 tumor margin resection.Malignant solitary fibrous tumor of the thigh is an extremely rare condition. A safe margin at the surgical excision and a close follow-up remain the standard of care.
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