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  • ISSN: 2373-9436
    Volume 4, Issue 4
    Review Article
    Zsuzsanna Suba*
    Currently used great weapons designed for tumor cell killing; chemotherapy, radiation and mutilating surgery destroy both the systemic and local defensive forces of patients. Malignant tumor cells are integrative parts of the body, they are not "wicked" enemies; but rather human cells embarrassed by the partial or near total loss of the highest intranuclear control machinery. Over the past decades, our understanding of estrogen receptor (ER) physiology considerably widened, as we acquired deeper informations on the regulatory roles of ERs in the maintenance of somatic and reproductive health. Both decreased and increased estrogen concentrations upregulate the expression and transcriptional activity of ERs so as to restore or increase the crucial estrogen signaling. At the same time both low and high ER-expressions require increased estrogen synthesis for the improvement or augmentation of pivotal estrogen signaling. Self generating autoregulative circle of estrogen levels and ER-expressions ensures strong DNA-protection for the cell proliferation and differentiation of healthy cells. By contrast, malignant tumor cell proliferation exhibits a self-repressing mutual down-regulation between low and/or defective expression of ER-alpha and BRCA1-protein expression. Estrogen-liganded ERs promote all steps of insulin receptor signaling and cellular glucose uptake, while defective transcriptional activity of ERs results in insulin resistance. In turn, the insulin resistance associated disturbances of cellular glucose uptake and energy supply compromises the biosynthesis of both ERs and aromatase enzymes leading to endangered ER-signaling. In conclusion, both estrogen supplementation and insulin sensitization may improve the metabolic and hormonal disturbances and decrease the risk of cardiovascular diseases and malignancies.
    Alex J. Crandon*
    Complete cytoreductive surgery (CRS) and adjuvant chemotherapy is and has been the backbone of treatment for advanced ovarian epithelial and primary peritoneal carcinomatosis for many years. Studies have shown that adjuvant intraperitoneal chemotherapy has significant survival advantages over standard intravenous chemotherapy but has been incompletely adopted due to side effects.
    Hyperthermia is known to be selectively lethal to malignant cells and also to increase the cytotoxic efficacy of a number of chemotherapeutic drugs. Phase 3 studies in gastrointestinal carcinomatosis using CRS and hyperthermic intra-operative intraperitoneal chemotherapy (HIPEC) have shown significant survival advantages. However, this treatment technique has only been explored in a small number of gynaecological oncology services worldwide. There is non-randomised evidence that suggests that CRS and HIPEC may well be as efficacious in advanced epithelial ovarian and peritoneal cancers as is the case in gastrointestinal cancers. If this proves to be the case then CRS and HIPEC may be the way of the future. The results of a number of phase 3 studies around the world are eagerly awaited.
    Madison Miller, Nitin Shirole, Ruxiao Tian, Debjani Pal, and Raffaella Sordella*
    As the most mutated gene in cancer, it is no surprise that TP53 has been the center of cancer biology discourse since its discovery in the late 1970s. Although early demonstrations of p53’s role in the modulation of cell proliferation and survival solidified its classification as a tumor suppressor and transcription factor, our conceptualization of p53 is ever-evolving. Here, we present novel evidence of the role of alternative splicing isoforms, truncating/separation-of-function mutations, and hot-spot silent mutations in the regulation of p53’s activities.
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