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  • ISSN: 2373-9436
    Volume 5, Issue 1
    Research Article
    Indrani Krishnappa1, Aneel Myageri2, Dinesh Udipi Shastri2, and Ravikala rao2
    Background: Intraoperative cytology is supportive and diagnostic of glial lesions. This is due to the dyscohesive nature of glial lesions and lack of dense connective tissue. We have tried to assess the utility of smear technique in rapid diagnosis of glial lesions.
    Aims: To study the cytological features of various glial lesions and to assess the utility of smear technique in intraoperative diagnosis of these lesions by comparing the cytology features with their respective histopathologic features.
    Setting & design: This study was conducted in the Department of Pathology, SDMCMSH, Dharwad over a period of 2 years.
    Materials & methods: Twenty neurological specimens of suspected glial tumours received in the department of pathology for frozen section were studied. Squash preparation was done on all the cases and stained with Hematoxylin & Eosin (H & E) staining. An intraoperative diagnosis was made on squash preparation and frozen section slides. The diagnosis on squash smears was compared with the final diagnosis.
    Results: Cytological correlation was seen in 18 out of 20 cases. Erroneous intraoperative diagnosis was given in one case each of oligodendroglioma and high grade astrocytoma. Hundred percent diagnostic accuracy of squash cytology was observed in cases of low grade astrocytomas, ependymoma, subependymoma and ganglioglioma.
    Conclusion: Intraoperative cytology is fairly accurate and useful in intraoperative consultation of glial tumours. However squash technique has its limitations in certain cases like oligodendroglioma and grading of glial tumours.
    Review Article
    Jose A. Lopez-Ruiz*, Juan A. Mieza-Arana, Julio Uruena-González, Emilli Gimenez-Garai, Javier Regalado-Bilbao, and Francisco Javier Garcia-Bernal
    Background: Breast Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) follows - up is recommended in women at high risk (either genetic risk or family history) of breast cancer. However, its use is not extended in the case of patients with personal history of breast cancer, although this is a risk factor for new malignant breast tumors. We present two cases diagnosed only by MRI in patients with a history of breast cancer.
    Method: Two cases of patients with a personal history of breast cancer underwent both mammography and breast ultrasound as follow - up are presented.
    Results: Two patients of 38 and 42 years of age diagnosed of unilateral breast cancer 3 and 7 years ago, respectively. Both of them were clinically asymptomatic and follow - up in their health centers only by mammography in case 1 and with both mammography and breast ultrasound in case 2, being reported as without pathological findings. In both cases, only the breast MRI allowed to diagnose a new tumor in the contralateral breast.
    Conclusions: In the follow - up of patients with a personal history of breast cancer, breast MRI allows the detection of non-visualized tumors with routine mammographic and breast ultrasound controls. Therefore, we recommend its use along with mammography, especially if they have undergone reconstructive surgery.
    Case Report
    Poorani Gananathan*, Aruna Prakasa Rao, Ganesan Singaravelu, and Elanchezhiyan Manickam
    Laser is a monochromatic, coherent, tunable light source available in different wavelength, mode and power. Laser is used in diagnosis and therapeutics in medicine. Photonanotherapy (PNT) is an emerging cancer treatment methodology involves the combination of light photons and nanoparticles. Basic approach of this review is defining features of lasers and their breakthrough potential in design and development of cancer treatment. In this review, types of lasers employed to different nanoparticles such as gold, carbon, silica and iron oxide nanoparticles in PNT were discussed. A nanoparticle hit with laser of different wavelength produces different responses in cells. This review explains the modified nano particle response and cell death mechanism by laser parameters. PNT creates hyperthermia, photo ablation, vaporization, carbonization and apoptosis in cells based on nanoparticles and light source combination. Over these years, cancer-targeting treatment has been greatly improved by new tools and approaches based on nanotechnology. In contrary, 67 articles were studied to understand the role of lasers in cancer therapy. Laser wavelengths ranging from 514 to 980 nm were discussed in this review. Also we discussed the general principle of intracellular mechanisms, size and shape of nanoparticles employed for PNT.
    Mini Review
    Samantha Messina* and Luigi Frati
    RAS oncogenes are master regulators of cancers. Somatic mutation in KRAS, HRAS and NRAS genes account for approximately 30% of human cancers. KRAS is the most frequently mutated isoform in RAS-driven cancers. Brain cancers are RAS-driven cancers despite have no RAS mutation or amplification and its pivotal role in brain tumorigenesis has been well documented. Indeed, it’s generally accepted that glioblastoma shows aberrant activation of RAS/MAPK cascade due to mutations in upstream and downstream regulators. Since pioneering study reporting that let-7 miRNA acted as tumor suppressor by repressing RAS oncogene, growing evidence has suggested the importance of miRNA targeting the RAS-MAPK in brain oncogenesis.Let-7 family members are direct and strong regulator of the RAS family. K-RAS, N-RAS and H-RAS mRNAs contain let-7 binding sites in 3’UTR sequences with clinical outcomes in some cancer. Although the expression levels of let-7 miRNA family are not reduced in brain tumors (with few exceptions), growing evidences show that let-7 miRNA inhibits the malignant behavior - proliferation, migration and invasion - of glioma cells and glioma stem-like cells as well as the tumor size in nude mice xenograft transplanted glioblastoma (GBM) via KRAS inhibition. More recently, genetic loss of let-7 is involved in neuroblastoma oncogenesis placing let-7 disruption at the center of neuroblastoma pathogenesis. In addition, loss of let-7 increases resistance to certain chemotherapeutic drugs and to radiation therapy in GBM. We aim this review at summarizing and updating current knowledge on the contribution of let-7 miRNA interplay with KRAS to oncogenesis of brain tumors.
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