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  • ISSN: 2379-061X
    Volume 2, Issue 1
    A. Yenamandra1*, F.C. Wheeler1, D. Zalepa1, A. Gardner1, M. Guanchez-Lopez1, M.A. Thompson1, J. Douds1, S. Mohan2 and A. Shaver1
    Rare de novo AML and MDS in male patients has been reported in a few cases with massive hyperdiploid and tetraploid karyotype [1-3]. A low remission rate and short survival are characteristic of this prognostically unfavorable cytogenetic group in de novo AML.
    Research Article
    William S. Brooks1#*, Sami Banerjee2# and David F. Crawford3
    Abstract: G2E3 is a G2/M-specific gene that is down-regulated in response to DNA damage. It is highly regulated at both the transcriptional and post-translational levels. It plays a critical role in early embryonic development, as murine G2E3-deficient blastula undergoes a massive apoptosis. To identify proteins interacting with G2E3 a yeast two-hybrid was conducted, which revealed eight putative G2E3-binding proteins including two ubiquitin ligases (RNF138/NARF, DZIP3/hRUL138), a proteasomal subunit (PSMB4), and one cell cycle regulatory molecule (INCA1). We examined a possible functional interaction between G2E3 and the putative oncogene RNF138/NARF, demonstrating that RNF138/NARF has a subcellular localization and cell cycle regulated expression pattern similar to that of G2E3. The regions of each protein necessary for interaction were mapped to the C-terminus of RNF138/NARF and the N-terminus of G2E3. Furthermore, we demonstrated that RNF138/NARF catalyzes the poly-ubiquitination of G2E3 in vitro and in vivo. Ubiquitination of G2E3 by RNF138/NARF provides another mechanism for the regulation of this protein. Because depletion of either G2E3 or RNF138/NARF causes cellular apoptosis, this functional interaction may be important in the regulation of cell death.
    Review Article
    Shuang Chen1 and Yang Cao2*
    Abstract: Arming antibodies with potent cytotoxic drugs greatly enhances the activity of antibodies, while reduces the systemic toxicity of cytotoxic drugs. Resent approvals of antibody-drug conjugates (ADCs) by FDA and the good performance of ADCs in clinical trials indicate promising potential of ADCs as immunotherapeutics. Safety and efficacy of ADCs are greatly influenced by their pharmacokinetics, in which the linkage between the antibody and the drug plays a critical role. This review discusses the progress in linkage optimization with an emphasis on the development of new ADCs with better safety and efficacy. It includes the exploration of drug release mechanism in the drug side of the linker, the superiority of site-specific ADCs over conventional ADCs, and the application of site-specific protein modification technology to generate site-specific ADCs. Related advances in molecular biology and chemical biology that benefit this field are also discussed.
    Mini Review
    Ravi P Sahu1,2*, Raymond L. Konger1,2 and Jeffrey B. Travers1,3,4
    Abstract: First described in 1972 by Benveniste and colleagues, platelet-activating factor (PAF) remains one of the potent phospholipid known to date. The role of PAF produced enzymatically in mediating diverse biological and pathophysiological processes including inflammatory and allergic diseases and cancers in response to various stimuli has been extensively studied. However, little is known about the role of non-enzymatically- generated PAF-like lipids produced in response to pro-oxidative stressors, particularly in modulating the host immune responses to tumor immunity, which is the focus of this review.
    Case Report
    Ram Babu Singh* and Abhishek Kumar
    Abstract: Ischemic stroke following snake bite is rare. We report a case of a 45 years old female developing hemorrhagic manifestations and left sided hemi paresis following a snake bite (unknown species). MRI brain shows multiple acute brain infarct/ toxic leukoencephalopathy in infratentorium and suoratentorium with surrounding mass effect and possible neuronal cells death. Most common and serious central nervous system complication following snake bite is intracranial hemorrhage. Ischemic stroke commonly involves anterior circulation. Bilateral cerebellar and occipital infraction is not yet reported in literature. Exact cause for the development of infarction is not clear. The possible mechanisms of infarction in this scenario are discussed.
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