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  • ISSN: 2379-061X
    Volume 2, Issue 2
    Editorial
    Jabbar Khan*
    The word thalassemia intermedia is a clinical definition in use for spectrum of clinical condition ranging in severity from the symptomatic carrier state to transfusion dependent patients. This mild phenotype may result from homozygosity for mild β thalassemia mutations, coinheritance with homozygous β thalassemia of a Thalassemia or hereditary persistence of fetal hemoglobin, compound heterozygosity for mild and severe β Thalassemia mutations, double heterozygosity for β Thalassemia and triple a globin gene arrangement or the presence of highly unstable hemoglobin (Hb) variants.
    Mini Review
    Kazuki Utsumi, Hatsuki Shiba, Kazuhide Adachi and Yasuhiro Tsukamoto*
    Abstract: Meningioma is tumors with variable evolution and prognosis. Several molecules seem to be involved in their behavior, including cell adhesion molecules. We previously found the heterogeneous expression of gicerin in four sporadic cases of Meningioma. Gicerin is an immunoglobulin super family cell adhesion molecule with both homophilic adhesion activity (gicerin - gicerin) and heterophilic adhesion with neurite outgrowth factor (NOF). This study was performed to clarify the importance of gicerin expression in the meninges. In the present study, the cell adhesiveness and behavior of gicerin-expressing meningioma cells in animals were examined to clarify the biological significance of this molecule in the malignant aspects of meningiomas. Firstly, transfectants with stable gicerin expression were established by introducing gicerin cDNA into the endogeneous gicerin-negative KPU-YT1 cells derived from a spontaneous rat meningioma. The transfectants showed enhanced cell-cell binding activity and also increased adhesion on either gicerin or NOF proteins. Next the transfectants were implanted into a cervical subcutaneous site of nude mice and were examined for their tumorigenicity and invasiveness. Interestingly, the gicerin transfectants formed larger tumors in the injection sites of most mice, which was inhibited by pre-treatment with an anti-gicerin polyclonal antibody. In addition, gicerin transfectants were enhanced their invasiveness into surrounding tissues. These findings suggest that gicerin might promote the malignant aspects of meningioma with respect to cell adhesion.
    Review Article
    Taku Hebiguchi1*, Yoshihiro Mezaki2, Mayako Morii1, Ryo Watanabe1, Hiroaki Yoshino1 and Haruki Senoo2
    Abstract: Vitamin A is a fat-soluble vitamin that is required for many physiological activities. Short bowel (SB) syndrome is caused by resection of a large part of the small intestine due to various diseases, and SB patients suffer from insufficient absorption of every kind of nutrient, including proteins, fats, carbohydrates, minerals and vitamins.
    Among them, vitamin A has a trophic effect on intestinal epithelial cells, facilitating "intestinal adaptation". In this short review, we introduce studies reported thus far regarding vitamin A absorption using SB model animals. Histological and physiological changes caused by small bowel resection are now understood at the molecular level. More detailed understanding of the effects of major bowel resection on nutrient absorption, especially of vitamin A, will contribute to improved management of SB syndrome in the future.
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