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  • ISSN: 2333-6633
    Current Issue
    Volume 3, Issue 3
    Research Article
    Cabral CBG*, Chernicharo CAL, Platzer CJ, Matthias Barjenbruch, and Paulo Belli Filho
    The energy recovery of biogas is way of minimizing the greenhouse gas emissions such as methane and explore a renewable energy source. The use of the biogas generated by wastewater anaerobic treatment in UASB reactors integrates in this proposal of good practices in WWTP. The energy efficiency improvement and the recovery of biogas in WWTPs with UASB reactors depend of a better knowledge of the biogas production behavior and of constructional and operational measurements. In this context, the main aim of this study was to evaluate the biogas production potential for energy recovery in full-scale UASB reactors. The specific aims of this study were: to establish unitary yields of specific biogas production for each WWTP and to estimate the energy potential of each WWTP analyzed. In order to achieve this goals, five wastewater treatment plants with UASB reactors were monitored during 11 months by online measurements of COD, wastewater and biogas flow, and biogas quality. The results showed that in general, the specific biogas production yields were lower than expected, indicating biogas losses. The values obtained ranged from 81 to 142 NL of CH4/kgCODremoved and the COD removal efficiencies from 63 to 88%. The well sealed reactors achieved biogas production yields of 17 L/inhab.day, 89 L/m3 wastewater e 179 l/kg CODremoved. In this case, the unitary electrical energy potential was 17,8 kWhel/inhab.year. The other WWTPs presented lower values due to higher biogas losses, but with optimization potential in case operational and constructive improvements would be implemented.
    Review Article
    Alex O. Ibhadon* and Shaun K. Johnston
    The manufacture of chemicals requires innovation at the catalyst frontier so that processes can be developed with higher energy efficiency and increased facility of separation and recovery of products. Catalysts with high selectivity and activity control the overall efficiency of a process by avoiding unwanted side-reactions and increasing the conversion per unit time. Although processes catalysed by homogeneous catalysts have the advantage of offering better control and understanding of the reaction mechanism, their frequent dependence on expensive metals which are difficult to recover, often precludes their employment in large-scale applications. Heterogeneously catalysed reactions on the other hand, are not associated with problems regarding recycling and reuse of catalyst, contamination of products or intermediates. This work reports the synthesis, characterization and testing of Pd-Sn nanoalloy catalyst in the selective hydrogenation of 2-methyl-3-butyn-2-ol. Our results show that the Pd-Sn nanoalloy, of composition Pd2.8Sn, supported on ZnO (Pd2.8Sn/ZnO), offers very high activity and selectivity in the semi- hydrogenation of 2-methyl-3-butyn-2-ol to 2-methyl-3-buten-2-ol in the liquid phase. Under identical reaction conditions, Pd2.8Sn/ZnO shows activity, both turn-over frequency and activity normalized by Pd content, significantly higher than Pd/CaCO3 (the Lindlar catalyst), with TOF of 137.6 s−1 compared to 79.2 s−1 for Pd/CaCO3 with approximately equal selectivity. The preparation of Pd2.8Sn/ZnO is achieved using a one-pot polyol procedure with the addition of a capping agent (polyvinylpyrrolidone) to control the particle size distribution. TEM shows nanoparticles evenly dispersed on the support, with a size distribution of 4.06 ± 0.75 nm. Single phase Pd2.8Sn was also prepared without the ZnO support, via the polyol method. Powder X-Ray diffraction data from the unsupported nanoalloy shows that the unit cell of Pd2.8Sn is face centred cubic with the Pd and Sn atoms occupying randomly the same crystallographic position. The chemical formula was calculated from a combination of ICP and PXRD analyses.
    Editorial
    Hui Tong Chua*
    Chemical Engineering and Process Technologies in general are timely and burgeoning fields that address the societal needs for near zero emission energy sources, greater energy efficiency and efficient generation of water, as well as accessing valuable nanoparticles through clean technology pathways and the minimum use of chemicals. To this end, I will draw upon my professional experiences in Australia to contextualize these points.
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