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  • ISSN: 2333-6633
    Early Online
    Volume 5, Issue 1
    Research Article
    Guangyin Chen*, Jingyi Li, and Xiaoying Wang
    Solid-state anaerobic digestion is an important and growing method of producing biogas from biowastes with a high volume of solid contents. In this study we conducted laboratory experiments to examine the effect of compaction on biogas production processes from wheat straw. Daily and cumulative biogas yield, methane content, pH value, volatile fatty acids (VFAs) and organic matter loss rate were analyzed during the experiments with different bulk density. Because of self-settlement behavior, time of biogas production peak was delayed; biogas production peak, biogas production rate and organic matter loss rate were reduced. The loss rate of dry matter, cellulose, hemicellulose and lignin of wheat straw was inversely proportional to the bulk density of wheat straw, and the loss rate was in the order as follows: cellulose > hemicelluloses > lignin. The above results indicated that the biogas reactor height should be limited or appropriate engineering measures taken to reduce straw compaction, and thus reduction in biogas yield in agricultural straw biogas plants.
    Paul Scherer, Sebastian Antonczyk, Anja Schreiber and Vollmer GR
    Anaerobic digestion of swine manure was performed with cereals as mono-input either by manual intermittent feeding or by feeding under the direction of a Fuzzy logic feedback control (FLC). The biogas process was conducted in semi-technical scale (1 m³ biogas reactor, 2.5 m³ dosage and 2.5 m³ digestate tank) by a process computer in the technical hall of the University of Applied Sciences in Nordhausen, 300 km away from Hamburg. But the process data of Nordhausen were supervised and internet based edited by FLC on the host computer in Hamburg. Only three control parameters were used: pH, methane content (% of the biogas) and specific gas production rate GPR. Specific GPR (GPR/ OLR/ d) or m³ biogas/ kgVS implied that the volumetric GPR (m³ biogas/(m³d) was related to the organic loading rate OLR in kgVS/(m3 d), VS = volatile solids. The implemented FLC-system worked as a real feedback control system as the microbes itself directed the speed of substrate feeding by the dynamics of their substrate turnover. In test period I with manual intermittent feeding only a process-safe OLR of 4 kgVS/(m3 d) was possible, followed by an overloading and reactor disturbance at ≤ 6.3 kgVS/(m3 d). However, operation with an automated FLC system in test period II (585 trial days) enabled a safe OLR of 9 kgVS/(m3 d) with a concomitant hydraulic residence time (HRT) of only 10 days. The applied FLC-system increased the OLR by more than 5 kgVS / (m3 d), doubled the process space-time yield and enabled a degradation rate of nearly 100% without jeopardizing the safe biogas process. Therefore, usage of an FLC-system should open the door for a remote controlled biogas production with an autopilot function.
    Marisa Richter*, Carmen Thiel, and Greg Kleinheinz
    The increased need for biomethane potential testing across the country has led to a number of laboratory methods being developed, but there is no clear standardization of these tests in the United States. However, standardized biomethane potential (BMP) testing procedures do exist; examples are the German DIN methods. Due to the lack of standardization, there is a need for better understanding of feedstocks being evaluated for BMP and a better comparison of lab results using common methodologies. This study presents a comparison of four different types of common feedstock groupings: food waste, yard waste, animal bedding material, and manure evaluated for BMP using a common method over a number of years. Total biogas production was normalized for either TS L/kg or VS L/kg. The mean total biogas productions TS L/kg for food waste, yard waste, bedding and manure were 560 L/kg, 186 L/kg, 246 L/kg, and 288 L/kg, respectively. The mean total biogas production VS L/kg for food waste, yard waste, bedding and manure were 634 L/kg, 235 L/kg, 300 L/kg and 370 L/kg, respectively. Both manure and yard waste showed the greatest variability in the biogas quantity from the BMP results. Food waste showed the highest quality in terms of methane content and the greatest biogas concentration when normalized for solids such as VS or TS.
    Starlin Thomas, Ashish B. Patil, Prathamesh N. Salgaonkar, Smriti Shrivastava, and Poonam Singh Nigam*
    The safer removal of chitin is important for controlling accumulation of chitin in environment and agriculture. Chitin a long-chain polymer is a glucose-derivative and a primary component of fungal cell-wall, the exoskeleton of molluscs, fish, and insects. Chitinase enzyme (E.C. 3.2.1.14) is able to digest chitin, hydrolyzing the 1-4 linkages between the N-acetyleglucosamine molecules. Present work was undertaken for the isolation and characterisation of chitinolytic bacteria from waste-seafood. Seventy-one indigenous strains were isolated from a variety of marine-sources, including scales of sea-fish, shrimps, prawns and crabs; of which 4isolates were identified as Alcaligenes spp., 2as Kurthiaspp., 1 as Acinetobactor and 1 as Bacillus spp. These were higher chitinase producers with enzyme units ranging from 12.5 to 35.41 micromoles/min/ml. These chitinase producers may prove to be industrially beneficial for their enzyme production for degradation of chitin in environment clean-up, polluted with decaying sea-food and wastes originated from their processing.
    Review Article
    Zongxin Pia and Lin Wang*
    A comparative study was made to represent the saturated vapor pressure of difluoromethane(R32),1,1,1,2-tetrafluoroethane(R134a), trans-1,3,3,3-tetrafluoropropene(R1234ze(E)), fluoroethane(R161) and 2,3,3,3-tetrafluoroprop-1-ene(R1234yf) with the Patel-Teja EOS coupled the five different alpha functions. Results show that the Patel-Teja coupled the Melhem function gets the adequate representation of the saturated vapor pressure. It also has been demonstrated that the Patel-Teja coupled the Joshipura and the Melhem alpha functions with the VDW mixing rules can represent the isothermal vapor liquid equilibrium for R32/R134a, R32/R1234ze(E),R32/R1234yf, R161/R1234yf,R32/R161 and R161/R1234ze(E) systems well if the EOSs has the right binary interaction parameters.
    Research Article
    Ajayi Oladipo*, Akinola David Olugbemide, Alade Adebolu Elijah, and Aijinomhoehi Solomon
    This research involves the study of the physical and chemical properties of pulps and kernels of three cultivars of the Dikanut (Irviinga Esp)-Irvinga Gabonensis, Irvinga Wombulu and Irvinga Gabonensis. Physical properties studied include size, shape, mass, volume, density, bulk density, packing factor at 81.93% and 24.46% moisture contents for the fruits and kernels respectively. Chemical properties studied include CH2O, lipid, ash, fibre, and protein, Ca, Mg, Na, K, P, N, Fe, Zn and FFA. The result of the analysis shows that there is a significant difference between the fruit sizes of the cultivars as well as physical and chemical contents. Owing to the growing demand of the forest fruit and the drudgery involved in its post-harvest processing and handling, it is imperative to generate relevant data regarding the physical and chemical attributes of the fruit crop towards the mechanization of the relevant post-harvest operations.
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