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  • ISSN: 2334-1831
    Current Issue
    Volume 5, Issue 2
    Research Article
    Balakumar Chandrasekaran, Pran Kishore Deb, and Raghuram Rao Akkinepalli*
    Novel fluorinated fused quinazolines with varying substitution pattern were designed based on bioisosteric replacement of active groups of the known adenosine A2B receptor (A2B AR) antagonists. Further, physico-chemical properties were computed for the newly designed ligands. The designed ligands were evaluated by three different commercially available molecular docking (in silico) software tools against A2B AR structure as suitable target protein. Molecular docking investigation of the designed ligands onto the active-site of A2B AR indicated higher docking scores and favourable molecular interactions. Based on in silico results, selected compounds were evaluated for in vitro adenylyl cyclase activity against hA2B AR.
    Yamuna Rani M, Bahaman D, Himabindu V*, Venkateswara Reddy V, and Saritha P
    The present study conducted to evaluate the feasibility of the production of bricks using dredged lake sediments, which is seriously polluted with industrial effluents. Hussain Sagar, Hyderabad, is an identified as one of the most polluted water body in India. Solidification and Stabilization is main principle behind this waste management. Two types of mix proportions were used to cast the test specimens, Type-I bricks are prepared using sediment as sole raw material and Type-II are prepared using sediment and fly ash compositions of 75% and 25% respectively. The bricks are fired at temperatures between 500°C to 700°C. S/S products were cured for 28 days, the strength of the brick specimens, the leachability of heavy metals and the mineralogical phase of the produced bricks were studied based on X-ray diffraction spectroscopy, Thermo gravimetric-Differential Thermal Analysis, Unconfined Compression Strength, Toxicity characteristics leaching procedure tests and water absorption test . All the specimens were perceived to be sufficient in achieving the compressive strength ranged from 4.7 to 6.2 N/mm2. Results of this study demonstrate that production of fired bricks is a promising and achievable productive use of Hussain Sugar polluted dredged sediment.
    Michelle Wagner, Heather Mathias, Michele Trawczynski, Corey Calhoun, Brooke Plotkin, Alexia Pollack, and Tiffany S. Donaldson*
    Background: After repeated administration of psycho stimulants such as amphetamine, less of the drug is needed to achieve the initial psychoactive effects. Glutamate has been implicated in the neural plasticity resulting from repeated amphetamine. Therefore, the current work set out to determine if blockade of glutamate acting at the N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor would interfere with the neurobehavioral development of amphetamine sensitization. Methods: Long-Evans rats (N=24) received a 4-day treatment of either (1) isotonic saline (0.9%), (2) 3.0 mg/kg/ml of amphetamineor (3) dizocilpine hydrogen maleate (MK-801, 0.01 mg/kg/ml) 30 min prior to amphetamine (3.0 mg/kg/ml) every other day. Forty-eight, 72 and 96 h, respectively, after the last amphetamine treatment, animals were given Environmental, Low Dose (amphetamine, 0.75 mg/kg/ml) and High Dose challenges (amphetamine 1.5 mg/kg/ml). Results: Analyses of behavioral data indicated the 4-day AMPH regimen induced sensitization that was significantly attenuated by pretreatment with MK-801. Postmortem analyses revealed a significant decrease in c-fos expression in the secondary motor cortex, cingulate cortex and nucleus accumbens core in amphetamine-treated rats, whereas an increase in c-fos was observed in the nucleus accumbens (shell and core) and cingulate cortexin animals receiving AMPH+MK-801 treatment. Conclusions: These results suggest that NMDA receptors are critical for aspects of amphetamine sensitization and distinct forebrain structures may be involved at different stages of this phenomenon.
    Review Article
    Anushree Tripathi and Krishna Misra*
    With the advancement of novel techniques in drug discovery, various approaches have been used in the structure based drug designing. One of the most important strategies is molecular docking. The study of molecular docking and simulation deals with the intermolecular interaction of drug targets i.e. proteins, nucleic acids, lipids and ligands. The aim of molecular docking is to achieve an optimized conformation for both the protein and ligand and relative orientation between protein and ligand such that the free energy of the overall system is minimized. The aim of this review article is to focus on various aspects of molecular docking including basic steps of docking, types of interactions, software tools with their algorithms and applications. Molecular docking study is highly relevant in order to predict potential targets of diseases as well as in designing effective drugs for pharmaceutical industry.
    Short Communication
    Tracy M. Mattox*, Carleton Falzone, and Jeffrey J. Urban*
    Nanoparticles-based products are becoming very popular for consumers, however, consumer adoption has outpaced a full understanding of the potentially new safety concerns that these materials can present. As particle size is decreased, irrespective of any chemical changes, the particles themselves can become easier to liberate into the ambient atmosphere and therefore carry an enhanced inhalation concern. Although a thorough understanding of the hazards associated with nanoparticles is nuanced and will take decades of devoted research to achieve, it is most prudent to protect researchers from unstudied hazards by developing custom engineering controls and safe waste handling practices. This work goes beyond common personal protective equipment to describe how researchers can set-up fume hoods and glove boxes to help mitigate the unknown dangers associated with nanoparticles. We treat all engineered nanoparticles as if they are hazardous in every research lab, and explain current best practices and our institutional norms for handling nanoparticle waste in a way that minimizes potential exposure and keeps laboratory air pristine.
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