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  • ISSN: 2578-3807
    Current Issue
    Volume 1, Issue 1
    Research Article
    Lebogang Ramma* and Ben Sebothoma
    To explore factors associated with a higher likelihood of seeking audiology services by adults with hearing impairment in Cape Town, South Africa. A prospective questionnaire-based survey involving participants from predominantly historically disadvantaged communities in Cape Town was conducted. A total 1247 participants took part in this study and were screened for hearing impairment. Those who did not pass hearing screening underwent diagnostic hearing assessment. Hearing impairment was confirmed in 166 of the participants; 106 females and 60 males, median age 31, range 18-92 years old. Thirty-five (21%) of the participants with hearing impairment reported seeking help for their hearing impairment. Self-perceived hearing impairment was found to be strongly associated with a higher likelihood of seeking audiology services. Severity of hearing impairment, age, gender, level of education, family history of hearing impairment and employment status were not associated with a higher likelihood of seeking help for hearing impairment. Out of the 54 (35%) participants with disabling hearing impairment, only two reported ownership (use) of hearing aids. In conclusion this study showed that majority of individuals with hearing impairment in Cape Town did not seek help for their hearing impairment even when they had a disabling hearing loss. However, those who perceived their hearing status to be impaired were more likely to seek help irrespective of whether they had a clinically confirmed hearing impairment or not.
    Linda Fälth*and Eva Nilsson
    A large discrepancy between national exam results and final grades in English has been found in compulsory school in Sweden. Between 1.9% and 18.7%, depending on which school, of students receive a course grade that is different from their grade on the national exam. As a result, many students have not in reality reached the criteria for the passing grade. In this study a method of learning English as a second language through fluency-based tasks is used and the effects on accuracy, fluency, self-esteem and motivation were studied. The participants were students in year one in college. The intervention had one part where the students told each other about various topics and another where they were encouraged to practice their writing skills by keeping a journal. The students were assessed using an evaluation test, a questionnaire and a final test. The results showed an overall increase in accuracy, fluency, self-confidence and motivation in the fluency-based task.
    Short Communication
    Sven Becker, Kerstin Nonn, Elmar Graessel, Anne Merle Becker, and Maria Schuster*
    Background: The voice is an essential aspect for age and gender identification. Disorders can be a symptom of a systemic or localized disease. To evaluate voice pathologies in people with intellectual disability, participants of the Special Olympics were examined.
    Methods: Acoustic and perceptual voice measurements were performed including a computer based acoustic analysis and a perceptual evaluation.
    Results: Forty athletes (27 male, 13 female, mean age of 27 years), participated in the study. Voice frequency was out of the normal range in approximately half of the participants. Pathologic voice parameters concerning hoarseness and regularity of the voice were found in 65% of the participants by acoustic analysis of the voice signal and in 48% by perceptual evaluation with accordance in between the results.
    Conclusion: About half of the participants showed abnormal voice characteristics. A comprehensive medical care for people with intellectual disability should include a clarification of pathologic voice findings.
    Review Article
    Cardoso IL* and Baptista H
    Myotonic Dystrophy type 1(DM1), also called Steinert syndrome, is amultisystemic disorder transmitted in an autosomal dominant manner, characterized by myotonia. Muscles involved in voluntary movement are highly affected by myotonia especially distal muscles of upper limbs. Patients with DM1 present a myopathic face and oropharynx weakness. Reduced motor mobility and saliva flux can lead to gingival inflammation and periodontal disease together with other oral manifestations like disturbances at the temporomandibular articulation. Main causes of death are pneumonia and cardiac arrhythmias.
    Although the etiology of this syndrome is well known, a specific treatment for this disease is still not available. Nowadays, treatments consist on the relief of existing symptoms, in an attempt to give a better life quality to patients. It is very important to implement actions that can prevent complications and this is why treatments should be applied in an early stage of the disease.
    It is the aim of this paper to clarify the etiology, systemic characteristics of the syndrome and in particular discuss how myotonia can lead to speech disturbances and present strategies to deal with this particular problem.
    Case Report
    Samir Dalwai*, Sajeda Ansari, Deepti Kanade-Modak, Ameya Bondre, and Bhavya Gour
    Circumscribed interests (CI) in children with Autism tend to interfere with participation in therapy and impede learning, memory and social development. However, scarce evidence has been generated on the effect of multidisciplinary intervention on CI, in the Indian context. A two year six months old boy, born of full-term Caesarean section (non-consanguineous marriage), without antenatal or postnatal complications and speech delay was presented at a multidisciplinary child development centre. Autism was diagnosed according to the fourth edition of Diagnostic and Statistical Manual (DSM IV-TR) with borderline social functioning (Social Quotient: 78) on Vineland Social Maturity Scale. During the intervention period, the child showed fixed interests and behaviors where most of his activities were executed in a ‘pattern of threes’ - for e.g. stacking three blocks, kissing first on left cheek and then right cheek and forehead, balancing only three balancing buffoons, writing only three-letter words and bringing only three chocolates or packets of chips, three toys or pencils. After receiving intervention, the child improved in his bonding with caregivers, self-help behaviors and group play (assisted). However, CI persisted at home. Intervention was modified to channelize the child’s preoccupation into a hobby or meaningful activity using a combination of behavioral reinforcement and creation of social stories on the ‘three characters’, in order to strengthen thinking and decision-making.
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