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  • ISSN: 2333-7133
    Bisphenol A in Dental Materials: A Review
    Authors: Liang Chen* and Byoung In Suh
    Abstract: Objective: To review scientific literature on BPA in dental materials, introducing the chemistry of BPA and its derivatives, and evaluating the BPA release and exposure from dental materials and the potential human health risks. Materials & methods: A search of English peer-reviewed dental literature from Pub Med and MEDLINE databases was conducted, and the key words included bisphenol A and BPA.
    Clinical Case Presentation: Challenging the American Board of Operative Dentistry Certification Examination
    Authors: Michael J. Metz1* and Cynthia J. Miller2
    Challenging The American Board of Operative Dentistry Certification (ABOD) was one of the most humbling, challenging and gratifying experiences of my dental career. To say that it is an honor to join the elite names on that list would be a serious understatement.
    Applications of Cone Beam Computed Tomography (CBCT) in Implant Treatment Planning
    Authors: Vandana Kumar1* and Keerthana Satheesh2
    The objective of this article is to review the literature which describes the evolving role of cone-beam computed tomography in dental implant treatment planning. The literature supports the use of CBCT in dental implant treatment planning particularly in regards to linear measurements.
    Effect of Light Curing Tip Distance and Immersion Media on the Degree of Conversion, Sorption and Solubility of Methacylate and Silorane-Based Composites
    Authors: Diogo de Azevedo Miranda1*, Nubia Pavesi Pini2, Glaucia Maria Bovi Ambrosano3, Flavio Henrique Baggio Aguiar3, Debora Alves Nunes Leite Lima3 and Jose Roberto Lovadino4
    The Effect of Home-Bleaching Agents on Surface Roughness of Restorative Materials
    Authors: Dionysopoulos D*, Koliniotou-Koumpia E, Gerasimou P and Papadopoulos C
    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of two home-bleaching agents (10 and 20% carbamide peroxide) on the surface roughness of four tooth-colored restorative materials over time.
    Latest Articles
    Review Article
    Michel Goldberg*
    Systemic and topical infections using irrigants are efficiently treated by antibiotics. Periapical lesions as well as microorganisms associated to the smear layer constitute the target of these therapies. In addition to dental and Peridontal infections, intracanalar medicaments, such as ledermix, septomycine, tetracyclines, and the triple antibiotic paste including metronidazole, ciprofloxacin and minocycline, has been reported to be effective in the cleaning and bacterial inactivation of the root canal system. Topical antimicrobial and root canal irrigants may be used after the degradation of the dental pulp. These irrigants include calcium hydroxide, sodium hypochlorite and chlorhexidine. Others root medication such as EDTA, MTAD, triclosan, metronidazol, and phenol derivative are also efficient in this context. All these irrigants are functioning in close association with water, viscous or oil based vehicles. Root canal disinfection is a need before filling of root lumen with a stable paste and a tight seal of the coronal part of the tooth. Eliminating the bacterial smear layer constitute a crucial step which is a prerequisite leading to the regeneration of the radicular pulp, that plays a major role of restorative endodontic treatment allowing apexification.
    Michel Goldberg*
    ART is a therapy that contributes to heal and prevent the increase of carious diseases. Previous studies have identified two parts in dentin carious lesion, the superficial infected part, and the inner affected portion. In the infected part, bacteria are numerous, located beneath the dentino-enamel junction. The mantle dentin is destroyed, and also peritubular dentin. Intertubular dentin is demineralized, and the decay is diffusing through enlarged tubules filled by bacteria releasing proteases. This soft part of the lesion may be removed manually using excavators. In the deep part, the affected dentin, peritubular dentin reappears gradually. The mineralization of the intertubular dentin is rising up to the level of the sound dentin. Some tubules are occluded by intraluminal mineralized structures, contributing to the formation of a sclerotic zone. Chemo-mechanical strategies aimed to keep the deep part of the lesion, susceptible to be a scaffold for re-mineralization. The sclerotic dentin layer provides a firm surface where dental surgeons are susceptible to glue adhesive biomaterials such as glass ionomers. ART strategies aim to eliminate the soft carious layer and preserve the affected layer which may heal and remineralize. This constitutes the basis for Minimal Intervention Dentistry (MID) and/or Atraumatic Restorative Treatment (ART). ART constitute nowadays a good substitute to the Blacks classical cavities. It prevents cariogenic spreading and the increase of carious lesions.
    Research Article
    Luis Perez-Melean*, Lidia Guerrero Rodriguez, and Jaime Catro-Nuez
    Purpose: A myriad of benign and malignant conditions may affect the mandibular condyle. Often, such conditions remain undiagnosed until they become symptomatic or incidentally discovered on diagnostic images. Radiologic findings in some of these lesions may be unspecific, therefore it is paramount to understand the clinical, radiologic, and histological presentation of such pathologies in order to provide an adequate diagnosis and a treatment plan. The purpose of this paper is to perform a non-systematic review of the literature of both benign and malignant lesions that can affect the mandibular condyle.
    Materials and Methods: A review of the English literature was done looking for benign and malignant lesions that can affect the mandibular condyle.
    Results: A myriad of benign and malignant conditions can affect the mandibular condyle. Treatment for these conditions is usually surgical.
    Conclusion: The mandibular condyle can be affected by a plethora of benign and malignant conditions, which require a proper understanding by the surgical team in order to diagnose and treat them properly.
    Davi Neto de Araujo Silva, Amanda Felix Goncalves Tomaz, Natalia Teixeira da Silva, Cristiane Lorena Maia Pinheiro, Marcela Leticia da Silva Azevedo, Angelica Kercya, and Pereira de Mendonca
    The dentist performance within public health represents an important advance in the complete and interdisciplinary plan for the prevention, promotion and health recovery, whether in public or private networks.
    Objective: This study aims to reflect and discuss the real dentist importance for the public health within this professional activity field, understanding that dental care goes beyond what is realized in the mouth. In addition, to analyze these professionals roles and their actions impacts on the health quality of those who receive their care.
    Methods: A literature search was performed in electronic databases PubMed and Cochrane Library, including articles published in scientific journals. Two researchers performed a critical analysis about the articles selected for inclusion.
    Results: 11 publications were selected. In both references consulted, there was a consensus regarding the indispensable dentist presence in the prevention and health promotion process. In addition, the dentist inclusion in the public health network, via government health strategies, only reinforces the need for valuing these professionals.
    Conclusion: The collectively dental services provision not only promotes oral health, but also enables the health quality improvement in an integral way.
    Review Article
    Michel Goldberg*
    In niches, stem cells are associated with adhesion extracellular matrix molecules (ECM). This gives rise to cells that retain their stemness, control their self-renewal and their progeny production, by using asymmetric or symmetric divisions. The adhesion molecules include N-cadherin/-catenin, VCAM/integrin, and osteopontin / 1 integrin. They create a microenvironment that favor cell division, and interactions leading to cell differentiation. Asymmetric division contributes to self-renewal (a single division) and produce daughter cells that conduct to terminal differentiation. C-Myc is involved in controlling the balance between stem cell maintenance and proliferation. Daughter cells are expressing low levels of c-Myc. They are retained in the niche in a quiescent state, whereas, high levels of c-Myc expression in the remaining daughter cells supports the proliferation of cells and the displacement of dividing transit cells and their replacement leading to terminal differentiation.
    Michel GOLDBERG*
    Osteogenesis imperfecta (OI) is an inherited disorder generating skeletal fragility. It is usually caused by mutations in one of the two genes encoding type I collagen (COL-1A1, COL1A2). The mutations result in a decreased synthesis or the formation of abnormal extracellular proteins. OI has been divided into four subtypes: Classic non-deforming OI with blue sclerae (type I), perinatally lethal OI (Type II), progressively deforming OI (Type III). common variable OI with normal sclerae (type IV). Type I OI is the mildest form. The fracture rate is increased, but without significant deformity or height deficit. Type II is lethal during the neonatal period. The most severe form in patients surviving the neonatal period is type III OI, Type IV comprises patients with phenotype intermediate to types I and III. Recently, other types of OI (VXV) have been identified. Although they phenotypically resemble to types IIV, they are not associated with type I collagen mutations. Dentinogensis imperfecta (DI), associated or not with OI, was classified in five types: Dentin Dysplasia types I and II (DD1 & DD2) and dentinogenesis imperfecta (DGI-types I-III). The critical loci of the mutation is located on chromosome 4q21, coding namely for DSPP. Cleavage of DSPP gives rise to three molecules susceptible to mutations, respectively DSP (dentin sialoprotein), DGP (dentin glycoprotein) and DPP (dentin phosphoprotein). Gray or brown teeth may appear translucent and characterize DI. Pharmacological treatments contribute to reduce the pain and adverse effects of OI, whereas cells and genes therapies need improvements.
    Research Article
    Gillam DG*, Chana B, Kumar K, and Martin E
    Aim: The aim of the present 22 item questionnaire-based study was to evaluate the knowledge and understanding of a representative sample of UK based Dental professionals in treating DH.
    Materials & Methods: A 22-item questionnaire on DH was sent to a representative sample of 2200 Dentists and Dental Hygienists/Therapists (DH/T). The study was submitted to the local Queen Mary University of London Ethics committee (QMREC 03537) and the research did not present any ethical concerns due to its low risk and therefore did not require the scrutiny of the full Research Ethics Committee. The questionnaire consisted of 22 questions, which included both open and closed questions. The addresses were selected from the General Dental Council (GDC) and Dental Hygienist/Therapists Lists and subsequently randomised using randomised number generator (RNG)(Graph Pad Software Inc. 2002-2005) and the questionnaires were sent out to the selected Dental practices by Royal Mail. The questionnaires were distributed during a six-month period from June 2011. Data were entered using the Microsoft Excel, and the results analysed using SPSS 22.0 for Windows (IBM, Portsmouth UK) in presented in the form of frequency distribution tables and pie charts. Pearson correlations were undertaken to determine whether there were any association between status, impact on the QoL, confidence of recommending at-home treatment to those suffering with DH.
    Results: 346 Questionnaires were returned (15.7%), of which 142 Questionnaires were from Dentists (12.9%) and 204 Questionnaires were from DH/Ts (18.5%). Both Dentists and DHTs provided similar responses to the questions with no major differences between the two groups.
    Conclusions: These results were consistent with previous studies and, would appear to suggest that, in terms of the knowledge and understanding of DH, both Dentists and DHTs had a broad understanding however there were still some confusion concerning aspects of the diagnosis and management of the condition and clinicians therefore need to be updated on the current recommendations and guidelines in the management of DH to both inform their patients in terms of awareness and prevention and to confidently diagnose and manage DH successfully .
    Rebecca CT. Liu and Paul A. Monsour*
    Objectives: (1) To examine the horizontal condylar angle (HCA) at different heights through the condyle using cone beam volumetric tomography (CBVT). (2) To investigate the relationship between the HCA and degenerative joint disease (DJD), occlusion, condylar dimensions, joint spaces, age, and gender.
    Study design: CBVT volumes of 264 joints were orientated according to a specific protocol. The left and right joints were examined independently. A mixed-effects model was used for statistical analysis.
    Results: Significant differences were found between the mean HCA measured at different heights (p<0.001). The mean HCA at 4.0mm, 6.0mm, and 8.00mm were 68.30, 64.51, and 61.30, respectively. A significant difference was found between the right and left sides (p<0.001). No other significant correlations were identified.
    Conclusions: The HCA is dependent on measurement height. Results from this study may be useful as a comparable reference for future studies correlating with clinical findings.
    Silvia Prasetyowati, Soesilaningtyas Gofur*, Isnanto, Nurhalimah Widyastuti, and Nanda Rachmad Putra Gofur
    Background: Caries is still the highest disease and most often complained by people in oral health problems. The results of oral examinations in Bekthiharjo, especially in RT 03 / RW O4 Semanding, Tuban District, the majority of the population aged 35-44 years found that the average DMF-T was 7.5 included in the high category. The problem in this study is the high average index of DMF-T in the community in Bekthiharjo RT 03 / RW 04 Semanding, Tuban District.
    Objective: The aim of this study is to determine the correlation between tuak manis and tuak pahit with salivary pH in Bekthiharjo, Semanding, Tuban District.
    Methods: This type of research is Pre-experimental design with pretest posttest methods. Respondents from this study are male population aged 35-44 years who consumed tuak manis and tuak pahit over 1. The data collection method used observation. The data analysis technique used the correlation test, Chi-Square test.
    Result: The results of this study are that there is a significant correlation between drinking tuak manis and tuak pahit with salivary pH.
    Discussion: Salivary glands can be stimulated by mechanical and chemical (stimulation of taste such as acid, sweet, salty, and bitter). The speed of salivary secretion can directly affect the degree of acidity in the oral cavity. The decrease in pH will repeatedly lead to the demineralization process and the beginning of the caries process.
    Conclusion: Based on this study, it can be concluded that there is a correlation between drinking tuak and salivary pH.
    Case Report
    Akio Isobe*, Yuji Sato, and Miki Kuwazawa
    Implant treatment is also a highly effective treatment for tooth defects, but the number of patients receiving prosthesis treatment with plate dentures has not decreased due to existing bone mass, systemic diseases, and financial problems. While the risk of troubles with teeth adjacent to the denture increases when a patient wears a plate denture, methods for dealing with the trouble of the denture abutment becomes important since the lifespan of patients is extended due to super-aging, the period of time required to wear dentures is extended and the possibility of worsening oral cleaning due to the need for nursing care increases. In addition, the patient is not always able to adapt to a new denture that is manufactured. This report provides an overview of a full zirconia crown that was fitted on the inner surface of the metal frame of a denture, which we manufactured by using CAD/CAM instead of manufacturing a new plate denture for a patient who needed the dental crown to be repaired after developing caries in the abutment tooth for the denture.
    Review Article
    Enabulele JE*, Ibhawoh LO, and Sudha Rao
    BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVE: There is increase in demand and advocacy for root canal treatment. This study evaluated cases planned for root canal treatment in a tertiary hospital in Nigeria METHODOLOGY: This was a prospective cross-sectional study of patients who received root canal treatment. The questionnaire sought information on the socio-demographic characteristics of the participants, the indication for the endodontic treatment and the teeth to receive endodontic treatment. Digital radiographic technique was used to evaluate the number of roots and root canals.
    RESULTS: A total of 143 patients who received root canal treatment on 162 teeth participated in the study. There was a slight male preponderance with males accounting for 50.3%. More maxillary teeth (58.6%) were root-treated compared to mandibular teeth (41.4%). The central incisors constituted the most frequently root-treated teeth (27.2%), followed by the first molars (21.0%) and then the second molars (16.7%). In the mandibular arch, the most frequently root-treated teeth were the molars (69.2%), while in the maxillary arch, the most frequently root-treated teeth were the incisors (46.3%). The most frequently encountered pathologies associated with the root-treated teeth were the sequelae of dental caries (50.6%), trauma (41.4%) and failed root canal treatment (5.6%). Most anterior teeth suffered trauma while posterior teeth suffered complications of dental caries and this was statistically significant (P<0.0001).
    CONCLUSION: More teeth from the maxillary arch, as well as more posterior teeth than anterior teeth across both arches, were root-treated. Incisors were the most commonly root-treated teeth in the maxillary arch while the molars were the most commonly root-treated teeth in the mandible with complications of trauma being the leading indications for root treatment of maxillary anterior teeth while the sequelae of caries were the predominant indications for root treatment of mandibular molars.
    Research Article
    Divya Jha, Sagaw Prateepchinda, Helen H. Lu, and Gunnar Hasselgren*
    The study was carried out to evaluate antibacterial susceptibility of bacteria from deep carious lesions to 3 different antibiotics Ciprofloxacin, Metronidazole, or Minocycline that were tested at concentrations (0.5, 1, 2, 4, 8mg/ml) by the disk diffusion method. Carious, infected dentin close to the pulp was collected from teeth with deep cavities and cultured in thioglycolate and brain heart infusion broths for 48hrs anaerobically and aerobically.
    The infected broths were tested for adequate growth and colony forming units against the McFarland Turbidity standard. It was then spread onto Brucella and Brain Heart Infusion Agar plates. Disks with the different concentrations were then placed on the agar surfaces. Each concentration was tested nine times. The control group consisted of agar plates infected with broth but without antibiotics. All agar plates were then placed in anaerobic or aerobic environments. The plates were checked for zones of inhibition after 48 hrs. All control groups had bacterial growth. A zone of inhibition was seen for all Ciprofloxacin concentrations tested under both aerobic and anaerobic conditions. Metronidazole and Minocycline did not show any zones of inhibition. Ciprofloxacin shows promise as an antibacterial agent against bacteria from deep caries.
    Original Article
    Poorya Jalali, Ali Mirzazadeh, Mehrnaz Tahmasbi, Gunnar Hasselgren*
    Objective: To evaluate the possible prevalence of periapical radiolucencies related to healthy mandibular molars with fused roots.
    Material and Methods: Full mouth series consisting of periapical films of 731 patients were evaluated. The following data was recorded for each patient: gender; total number of mandibular 1st and 2nd molars; number and location of molars with fused roots; and number and location of healthy fused-rooted molars with periapical radiolucency. Only the patients with radiographically healthy molars were included in the study (teeth with absence of radiographically visible deep caries or filling materials).
    Results: Of all the 1st and 2nd molars (2924) in the study, 82 (2.8%) had complete radiographic display of root fusion. Adding fused-rooted third molars brought the number to 133. Of the 133 fused-rooted healthy molars (including 3rd molars) 44 manifested periapical radiolucency (33.08%), including 2 of 3 1st molars, 22 of 79 2nd molars, and 20 of 51 3rd molars (P > .05).
    Conclusion: Periapical radiolucencies associated with human, healthy mandibular molars with fused roots exist, and they are not uncommon. Therefore, it is important to do a thorough clinical and radiographic assessment when evaluating pulpal and periapical status of lower molars with fused roots.
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