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  • ISSN: 2333-7133
    Current Issue
    Volume 7, Issue 1
    Review Article
    Michel Goldberg*
    Endochondral and membranous (intramembranous) ossification control skeletogenesis. In contrast to endochondral ossification, in which cartilage is replaced by bone, membranous mineralisation involves a highly vascular connective tissue, loaded by proliferating osteoprogenitor cells. The face is formed mostly by intramembranous bones (premaxillary, maxillary, zygomatic, petrous portions of the temporal bone), with the contribution of the frontal, parietal, the squamous portions of the temporal and interoccipital bones. Maxillary and mandible formation, tooth crown and root shaping are related to eruption. Dentin structure is also linked to teeth and bone early stages of development. Growth and transcription factors regulate tooth development, eruption, and resorption. Secretion of 4um/daily contribute to the von Ebner and/or Andresen lines, displaying dentin periodicity.
    Michel Goldberg*
    In addition to initial maturation, dental tissues maturation physiological development involves ions and molecules adsorption at the surface of tooth enamel. Demineralization/remineralization, absorbance and exchanges are associated to tooth function. Crystals lengthening and thickening provide significant enamel maturation. Dentin maturation implicates the closure of tubules, and tooth eruption in the oral cavity. Pulp chamber is gradually reduced, the teeth becoming more resistant to the progression of dental caries. Pulp stones or/and diffuse mineralization significantly reflects tooth maturation.
    Michel Goldberg*
    Pulp cells biology includes sensitive and sensory-motor nerves, blood vessels and a inflammatory vascular network (T-lymphocytes, B-lymphocytes, dendritic cells, NK cells. Fibroblasts (or pulpoblasts) are linked by intercellular junctions (desmosomes and gap-junctions). After migration from the inner pulp toward the periphery, pulpoblasts are transferred toward the outer pulp border. The cells are renewed after they underwent functional apoptosis. Angiogenesis, neuronal differentiation, inflammatory cells, constitute the bulk of pulp cells. The dental pulp extracellular matrix components include collagen and non-collagenous molecules. Non-carious and carious lesions are the major non-genetic events leading to pulp degradation.
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