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  • ISSN: 2333-7133
    Bisphenol A in Dental Materials: A Review
    Authors: Liang Chen* and Byoung In Suh
    Abstract: Objective: To review scientific literature on BPA in dental materials, introducing the chemistry of BPA and its derivatives, and evaluating the BPA release and exposure from dental materials and the potential human health risks. Materials & methods: A search of English peer-reviewed dental literature from Pub Med and MEDLINE databases was conducted, and the key words included bisphenol A and BPA.
    Clinical Case Presentation: Challenging the American Board of Operative Dentistry Certification Examination
    Authors: Michael J. Metz1* and Cynthia J. Miller2
    Challenging The American Board of Operative Dentistry Certification (ABOD) was one of the most humbling, challenging and gratifying experiences of my dental career. To say that it is an honor to join the elite names on that list would be a serious understatement.
    Applications of Cone Beam Computed Tomography (CBCT) in Implant Treatment Planning
    Authors: Vandana Kumar1* and Keerthana Satheesh2
    The objective of this article is to review the literature which describes the evolving role of cone-beam computed tomography in dental implant treatment planning. The literature supports the use of CBCT in dental implant treatment planning particularly in regards to linear measurements.
    Effect of Light Curing Tip Distance and Immersion Media on the Degree of Conversion, Sorption and Solubility of Methacylate and Silorane-Based Composites
    Authors: Diogo de Azevedo Miranda1*, Nubia Pavesi Pini2, Glaucia Maria Bovi Ambrosano3, Flavio Henrique Baggio Aguiar3, Debora Alves Nunes Leite Lima3 and Jose Roberto Lovadino4
    The Effect of Home-Bleaching Agents on Surface Roughness of Restorative Materials
    Authors: Dionysopoulos D*, Koliniotou-Koumpia E, Gerasimou P and Papadopoulos C
    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of two home-bleaching agents (10 and 20% carbamide peroxide) on the surface roughness of four tooth-colored restorative materials over time.
    Latest Articles
    Review Article
    Michel Goldberg*
    Systemic and topical infections using irrigants are efficiently treated by antibiotics. Periapical lesions as well as microorganisms associated to the smear layer constitute the target of these therapies. In addition to dental and Peridontal infections, intracanalar medicaments, such as ledermix, septomycine, tetracyclines, and the triple antibiotic paste including metronidazole, ciprofloxacin and minocycline, has been reported to be effective in the cleaning and bacterial inactivation of the root canal system. Topical antimicrobial and root canal irrigants may be used after the degradation of the dental pulp. These irrigants include calcium hydroxide, sodium hypochlorite and chlorhexidine. Others root medication such as EDTA, MTAD, triclosan, metronidazol, and phenol derivative are also efficient in this context. All these irrigants are functioning in close association with water, viscous or oil based vehicles. Root canal disinfection is a need before filling of root lumen with a stable paste and a tight seal of the coronal part of the tooth. Eliminating the bacterial smear layer constitute a crucial step which is a prerequisite leading to the regeneration of the radicular pulp, that plays a major role of restorative endodontic treatment allowing apexification.
    Michel Goldberg*
    ART is a therapy that contributes to heal and prevent the increase of carious diseases. Previous studies have identified two parts in dentin carious lesion, the superficial infected part, and the inner affected portion. In the infected part, bacteria are numerous, located beneath the dentino-enamel junction. The mantle dentin is destroyed, and also peritubular dentin. Intertubular dentin is demineralized, and the decay is diffusing through enlarged tubules filled by bacteria releasing proteases. This soft part of the lesion may be removed manually using excavators. In the deep part, the affected dentin, peritubular dentin reappears gradually. The mineralization of the intertubular dentin is rising up to the level of the sound dentin. Some tubules are occluded by intraluminal mineralized structures, contributing to the formation of a sclerotic zone. Chemo-mechanical strategies aimed to keep the deep part of the lesion, susceptible to be a scaffold for re-mineralization. The sclerotic dentin layer provides a firm surface where dental surgeons are susceptible to glue adhesive biomaterials such as glass ionomers. ART strategies aim to eliminate the soft carious layer and preserve the affected layer which may heal and remineralize. This constitutes the basis for Minimal Intervention Dentistry (MID) and/or Atraumatic Restorative Treatment (ART). ART constitute nowadays a good substitute to the Blacks classical cavities. It prevents cariogenic spreading and the increase of carious lesions.
    Research Article
    Luis Perez-Melean*, Lidia Guerrero Rodriguez, and Jaime Catro-Nuez
    Purpose: A myriad of benign and malignant conditions may affect the mandibular condyle. Often, such conditions remain undiagnosed until they become symptomatic or incidentally discovered on diagnostic images. Radiologic findings in some of these lesions may be unspecific, therefore it is paramount to understand the clinical, radiologic, and histological presentation of such pathologies in order to provide an adequate diagnosis and a treatment plan. The purpose of this paper is to perform a non-systematic review of the literature of both benign and malignant lesions that can affect the mandibular condyle.
    Materials and Methods: A review of the English literature was done looking for benign and malignant lesions that can affect the mandibular condyle.
    Results: A myriad of benign and malignant conditions can affect the mandibular condyle. Treatment for these conditions is usually surgical.
    Conclusion: The mandibular condyle can be affected by a plethora of benign and malignant conditions, which require a proper understanding by the surgical team in order to diagnose and treat them properly.
    Davi Neto de Araujo Silva, Amanda Felix Goncalves Tomaz, Natalia Teixeira da Silva, Cristiane Lorena Maia Pinheiro, Marcela Leticia da Silva Azevedo, Angelica Kercya, and Pereira de Mendonca
    The dentist performance within public health represents an important advance in the complete and interdisciplinary plan for the prevention, promotion and health recovery, whether in public or private networks.
    Objective: This study aims to reflect and discuss the real dentist importance for the public health within this professional activity field, understanding that dental care goes beyond what is realized in the mouth. In addition, to analyze these professionals roles and their actions impacts on the health quality of those who receive their care.
    Methods: A literature search was performed in electronic databases PubMed and Cochrane Library, including articles published in scientific journals. Two researchers performed a critical analysis about the articles selected for inclusion.
    Results: 11 publications were selected. In both references consulted, there was a consensus regarding the indispensable dentist presence in the prevention and health promotion process. In addition, the dentist inclusion in the public health network, via government health strategies, only reinforces the need for valuing these professionals.
    Conclusion: The collectively dental services provision not only promotes oral health, but also enables the health quality improvement in an integral way.
    Review Article
    Michel Goldberg*
    In niches, stem cells are associated with adhesion extracellular matrix molecules (ECM). This gives rise to cells that retain their stemness, control their self-renewal and their progeny production, by using asymmetric or symmetric divisions. The adhesion molecules include N-cadherin/-catenin, VCAM/integrin, and osteopontin / 1 integrin. They create a microenvironment that favor cell division, and interactions leading to cell differentiation. Asymmetric division contributes to self-renewal (a single division) and produce daughter cells that conduct to terminal differentiation. C-Myc is involved in controlling the balance between stem cell maintenance and proliferation. Daughter cells are expressing low levels of c-Myc. They are retained in the niche in a quiescent state, whereas, high levels of c-Myc expression in the remaining daughter cells supports the proliferation of cells and the displacement of dividing transit cells and their replacement leading to terminal differentiation.
    Research Article
    Gillam DG*, Chana B, Kumar K, and Martin E
    Aim: The aim of the present 22 item questionnaire-based study was to evaluate the knowledge and understanding of a representative sample of UK based Dental professionals in treating DH.
    Materials & Methods: A 22-item questionnaire on DH was sent to a representative sample of 2200 Dentists and Dental Hygienists/Therapists (DH/T). The study was submitted to the local Queen Mary University of London Ethics committee (QMREC 03537) and the research did not present any ethical concerns due to its low risk and therefore did not require the scrutiny of the full Research Ethics Committee. The questionnaire consisted of 22 questions, which included both open and closed questions. The addresses were selected from the General Dental Council (GDC) and Dental Hygienist/Therapists Lists and subsequently randomised using randomised number generator (RNG)(Graph Pad Software Inc. 2002-2005) and the questionnaires were sent out to the selected Dental practices by Royal Mail. The questionnaires were distributed during a six-month period from June 2011. Data were entered using the Microsoft Excel, and the results analysed using SPSS 22.0 for Windows (IBM, Portsmouth UK) in presented in the form of frequency distribution tables and pie charts. Pearson correlations were undertaken to determine whether there were any association between status, impact on the QoL, confidence of recommending at-home treatment to those suffering with DH.
    Results: 346 Questionnaires were returned (15.7%), of which 142 Questionnaires were from Dentists (12.9%) and 204 Questionnaires were from DH/Ts (18.5%). Both Dentists and DHTs provided similar responses to the questions with no major differences between the two groups.
    Conclusions: These results were consistent with previous studies and, would appear to suggest that, in terms of the knowledge and understanding of DH, both Dentists and DHTs had a broad understanding however there were still some confusion concerning aspects of the diagnosis and management of the condition and clinicians therefore need to be updated on the current recommendations and guidelines in the management of DH to both inform their patients in terms of awareness and prevention and to confidently diagnose and manage DH successfully .
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