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  • ISSN: 2379-089X
    Early Online
    Volume 7, Issue 1
    Short Communication
    Irène Mangin*, Ester Pereira, Antonia Suau, Marie-Jose Butel, Philippe Pochart and Florence Campeotto
    Background: Metronidazole (MTZ), a nitroimidazole antibiotic effective against anaerobes, is commonly used with success to reduce symptoms of gastrointestinal disorders in infants, but this treatment still remains empirical. A previous MTZ administration in rats resulted in a large increase in colonic mucus layer thickness and in caecal bifidobacterial populations.
    Objective: In this pilot study, the colonic microbiota of four infants suffering from mild gastrointestinal disorders was monitored before and after 10 days of exposure to MTZ.
    Methods: Quantitative PCR of several bacterial groups and high-throughput sequencing of bacterial 16S rRNA genes were used to investigate the intestinal microbiota.
    Results: Bifidobacterial populations significantly increased at the end of treatment. Moreover, the counts of mucin-degraders decreased as well as gas-producing species belonging to Clostridium genus.
    Conclusion: These alterations could have health benefits that would explain the well-being of infants after MTZ treatment.
    Research Article
    Sopbué Fondjo Emmanuel*, Kemvou Tiofah Roosvelt, Tamokou Jean De-Dieu, Kengne Irene Chinda, Doungmo Giscard, Djeukoua Dimo Kamal Sorel, Peter FW. Simon, Tsopmo Apollinaire, and Kuiate Jules Roger
    A novel lanthanum coordination compound (4) was synthesized via a two-steps process. During the first step, 3-amino-1-[2-phenyldiazenyl]-4H-thieno [3, 4-c], chromen-4-one (APTC) (3) was prepared from the reaction of 3-amino-4H-thieno[3,4-c] chromen-4-one (1) with sulfate diazonium salt of aniline (2). In the second step, the new complex (4) was synthesized by reacting 3 with lanthanum nitrate at 1:1 molar ratio under ultrasonic conditions. The new lanthanum coordination compound was characterized by infrared, ultraviolet, mass spectrometry, nuclear magnetic resonance and X-ray diffraction data. The precursor molecule (3) and the lanthanum complex were evaluated for their antimicrobial activities using broth microdillution method. The complex (4) showed in most cases higher growth inhibitory activities than the precursor against the tested microorganisms that include bacteria (Escherichia coli, Providencia stuartii, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Staphylococcus aureus) and fungi (Candida albicans ATCC 9002, Candida parapsilosis ATCC 22019, Candida parapsilosis). In some case, the complex showed a greater antibacterial activity than the ciprofloxacin used as reference antibiotic.
    Research Article
    Nitika Agrahari*, Cs Lakshameesha, Sukanta Roy, and Neha Chauhan Awadhesh
    Background: Aphrodisiac drugs usage is increasing as a sexual enhancement resources among both men and women without a medical indication and efficacy. Recreational usage of aphrodisiacs has been correlated with elevated sexual risk activity, an increased risk for STIs, including HIV infection, and high levels of concomitant illegal substance usage. The aim of the research was to do the demographic study and various regulation associated with the class of drug.
    Meterials and Methods: This was an online questionnaire-based analysis completed between March 2020 and May 2020. Males > 18 years of age have been selected. 750 responses from all over the nation were collected.
    Results: Of these, 550 answers were total and 200 were partial.
    Conclusion: This study shows that recreational aphrodisiac use is relatively common among men and is associated with illicit substance abuse, increased sexual risk behavior and increased risk of STIs.
    Review Article
    Lundrim Marku and Hillar Klandorf*
    Diminished levels of urate have been linked to oxidative stress in birds and mammals. Urate, a major antioxidant that lowers reactive oxygen/nitrogen species (ROS/RNS), ameliorates these effects. Recent studies have proposed that an increased permeability in the intestine due to some insult can induce inflammation in peripheral organs such as the brain. Allopurinol, a relatively toxic purine analogue that serves as a xanthine oxidase inhibitor, reduces urate levels which can subsequently induce an inflammation state in the intestine. Recent studies have implicated that the intestinal permeability can be with linked with CNS dysfunction, which include Parkinson’s, Alzheimer’s, autism, schizophrenia, multiple sclerosis, depression, anxiety, and post-traumatic stress disorder. However, the relationship between reduced urate, the immune system and the pathogenesis of the intestine, the liver or the brain has not been well characterized in avians. The elevated body temperatures of birds may accentuate the pathogenesis of complications induced by allopurinol and so may be a model for future studies investigating neurodegenerative disease progression.
    Gian Maria Pacifici*
    Ciprofloxacin is a fluoroquinolone and targets bacterial DNA gyrase and topoisomerase IV. For many gram-positive bacteria topoisomerase IV is the primary target. In contrast, DNA gyrase is the primary quinolone target in many gram-negative microbes. Ciprofloxacin inhibits gyrase-mediated DNA supercoiling at concentrations that correlate with those required to inhibit bacterial growth. Ciprofloxacin is active against Proteus, Escherichia coli, Klebsiella, Chlamydia, Mycoplasma, Legionella, Brucella and Salmonella, Shigella, Enterobacter, Campylobacter, Mycobacterium species. Ciprofloxacin is rapidly absorbed following oral dosing and the total body clearance and the distribution volume increase with the infant maturation and child development whereas the elimination half-life decreases with subject ageing and ranges from 16.6 to 3.3 hours in infants and adolescents, respectively. Ciprofloxacin has been found efficacy and safe in infants and children but it can causes adverse-effect, the major adverse-effect is musculoskeletal abnormalities but they are reversible. Several interactions of ciprofloxacin with drugs have been reported. Prophylaxis with ciprofloxacin is useful to prevent infections and treatment with ciprofloxacin has been used to treat different infections in infants and children. Ciprofloxacin poorly crosses the human placenta and poorly penetrates into the beast-milk whereas it penetrates into the cerebrospinal fluid in significant amounts and successfully cured bacterial meningitis in infants and children. The aim of this study is to review the published data on ciprofloxacin dosing, efficacy and safety, adverse-effects, pharmacokinetics, intersection with drugs, prophylaxis, treatment, placental transfer, penetration into the breast-milk and cerebrospinal fluid, and treatment of meningitis in infants and children.
    Lynnette R. Ferguson*
    Stability of the human genome is critical to the maintenance of good health, and diet plays a critical role in this. The Halifax project was an international collaboration that summarised literature on the nature of genomic stability and role of nutrients in stabilising or destabilising the genome, up to 2015. This review considers current literature in the area, to develop the most effective nutritional strategies to avoid genomic instability. Either macronutrient excess (obesity), or nutrient deficiency, can lead to genomic instability and increasing evidence suggests that both are important. However, it is important to stress that even normal weight individuals may have micronutrient deficiencies, which go undetected. Important factors affecting body weight include overall caloric intake, and the utilisation of energy. Lean meat, fish or tofu are good protein sources, when eaten in moderation. While high fat consumption may be detrimental, the ratio of long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids to other fats is important, as these may become anti-inflammatory. Certain carbohydrate sources at appropriate levels may influence genomic stability, and there is general international agreement on desirable levels of vitamins and minerals. Regular consumption of a mix of fresh fruits and vegetables will help to ensure a good micronutrient balance. Metal ions including selenium, copper, zinc and iron act as co-factors for many enzymes, thereby controlling important biological processes. Vitamin D deficiency is common, and usually detrimental, but is unusual in requiring exposure to sunlight for effective synthesis in the human body.
    Gian Maria Pacifici*
    Aciclovir is an acyl guanine nucleoside analogue that lacks the 2’ and 3’ positions normally supplied by ribose. Aciclovir is the prototype of a group of antiviral agents that are nucleoside congeners that are phosphorylated intracellularly by a viral kinase and subsequently by host cell enzymes to become inhibitors of viral DNA synthesis. Aciclovir is most active against herpes simplex virus-1 and has been used to treat varicella zoster and Epstein-Barr viruses. The intravenous dose of acyclovir is 30 mg/kg thrice-daily in infants. In children the dose varies according to the virus to be treated and the oral dose ranges from 200 to 800 mg 4 or 5 times-daily to treat varicella zoster infection and increases with child age. Aciclovir elimination half-life ranges from about 10 to 3 hours in infants, decreases with infant maturation, and in children it is about 1.5 hours. Aciclovir interacts with drugs and may induce nephrotoxicity. The treatment and the prophylaxis with aciclovir have been extensively studied in infants and children. Aciclovir penetrates into the cerebrospinal fluid in significant amounts and cured encephalitis caused by herpes simplex virus and meningitis due to herpes zoster virus. This drug crosses the placenta and migrates into the breast-milk. The aim of this study is to review of acyclovir dosing, efficacy, safety, adverse-effects, pharmacokinetics, metabolism, drug-interactions, toxicity, treatment, prophylaxis, penetration into the cerebrospinal fluid, treatment of meningitis, in infants and children, placental transfer, and migration into the breast-milk.
    Review Article
    Gian Maria Pacifici*
    Ampicillin is an aminopenicillin and is more active than penicillin G. Ampicillin is destroyed by β-lactamase and is co-formulated with sulbactam an inhibitor of β-lactamase. Ampicillin is bactericidal and it is active against meningococci, Listeria monocytogenes, enterococci, and the co-administration with sulbactam markedly expands the spectrum of activity against Haemophilus influenzae, Escherichia coli, Proteus, and Bacillus fragilis. Ampicillin may be administered intravenously and orally and the intravenous dose is 50 mg twice-daily and thrice-daily in preterm and term infants, respectively. The oral dose in children ranges from 125 to 500 mg 4 times-daily and increases with the chid age. Ampicillin has been found efficacy and safe in infants and children but may cause adverse-effects. In infants, the ampicillin elimination half-life ranges between 2.4 to 5.0 hours and decreases with infant maturation and in children it is about 0.8 hours. Ampicillin interacts with drugs, the treatment and the trials with ampicillin have been extensively studied in infants and children. This antibiotic freely crosses the human placenta but poorly migrates into the breast-milk. Ampicillin penetrates into the cerebrospinal fluid in significant amounts and treated meningitis caused by different pathogens generally co-administered with other antibiotics, particularly with chloramphenicol, but cefotaxime or cefuroxime sterilized the cerebrospinal fluid more rapidly. The aim of this study is to review the ampicillin dosing, efficacy and safety, effects, adverse-effects, tissue concentration, pharmacokinetics, interaction with drugs, treatment, trials, placental transfer, migration into breast-milk, penetration into the cerebrospinal fluid, and treatment of bacterial meningitis in infants and children.
    Mahmoud M. Sebaiy*, Eslam M. Farouk, Eslam M. Lotfy, Eslam M. Mokhtar, Eslam N. Abd-Elgwad, Eslam Y. Hassan
    In this literature review, we are introducing most of up-to-date reported methods that have been developed for determination of an important antibiotic which is azithromycin in its pure form, combined form with other drugs, combined form with degradation products, and in biological samples.
    Gian Maria Pacifici*
    Ganciclovir is an acyclic guanine nucleotide analogue and valganciclovir is the L-valyl ester prodrug of ganciclovir. Ganciclovir inhibits all herpes viruses and is especially active against cytomegalovirus. Ganciclovir inhibits viral DNA. Ganciclovir diphosphate and ganciclovir triphosphate are formed by host enzymes. The oral bioavailability of ganciclovir is < 10% whereas that of valganciclovir is about 60% and food further increases its bioavailability. Ganciclovir is effective in the treatment of cytomegalovirus retinitis. The intravenous dose of ganciclovir is 6 mg/kg twice-daily in infants and in children it is 5 mg/kg twice-daily. Ganciclovir has been found efficacy and safe in infants and children but it may induce adverse-effects. The mean elimination half-life of ganciclovir is 2.4 hours and the mean distribution volume is about 700 ml/kg in infants. Ganciclovir is converted into ganciclovir triphosphate in human cytomegalovirus infected cells and the elimination of ganciclovir triphosphate is about 48 hours in these cells. Ganciclovir interacts with drugs and the treatment and prophylaxis with ganciclovir have been extensively studied in infants and children. Ganciclovir penetrates into the cerebrospinal fluid of infants and children in significant amounts and treated the meningitis caused by human herpesvirus 6 and by cytomegalovirus. Ganciclovir is poorly transferred across the human placenta. The aim of this study is to review the published data on ganciclovir dosing, efficacy and safety, effects, adverse-effects, pharmacokinetics, metabolism, drug interactions, therapeutic use, treatment, prophylaxis, penetration into the cerebrospinal fluid, and treatment of meningitis in infants and children, and the transfer across the human placenta.
    Research Article
    Nitika Agrahari*, Cs Lakshameesha, Divakar Goli, and Neha Chauhan Awadhesh
    Medical Device is an emerging market. The specific areas of application and extent of usage of medical devices is ever increasing throughout the world and becoming more and more sophisticated with every passing year. Regulations of Medical Devices vary from country to country. European Medical Agency (EMA) regulates medical devices in EU while the Central Drug Standard Control Organization (CDSCO) is its counterpart in India. Recently introduced guidelines and various amendments provide adequate guidance for the manufacturers, distributors and competent authorities to manage various activities and regulatory processes in an efficient manner. They perform a gap analysis of various regulatory frameworks of their business interests in order to thoroughly understand the inputs required for regulatory approvals across geographic territories. This research highlights comparative study of current regulations in India and EU, pertaining to applications for medical device registration certificates and medical device manufacturing/importation licenses. The recommendations are to be expected to implemented and regulated properly with effective outcome.
    Gian Maria Pacifici*
    Lamivudine is a cytidine analogue reverse transcriptase inhibitor that is active against HIV-1, HIV-2, and HBV; it is approved for HIV in adults and in children aged 3 months or older. Lamivudine enter cells by passive diffusion and is phosphorylated to lamivudine 5’-triphosphate which is the active anabolite. Lamivudine is administered orally, its oral bioavailability is 86%, and lamivudine is primarily excreted unchanged in the urine. Lamivudine may be administered alone but in most cases it is co-administered with other antiviral drugs. The oral dose of lamivudine is 4 mg/kg twice-daily in infants, and in children it is computed according to the child age and body-weight and the maximum dose is 300 mg once-daily. Lamivudine co-administered with antiviral drugs has been found efficacy and safe in infants and children with HIV-infection and lamivudine prevents the transmission of hepatitis B virus from mother-to-infant. Lamivudine elimination half-life is about 6 hours in infants and about 4 hours in infants and children. The prophylaxis and treatment with lamivudine have been studied in infants and children. The prophylaxis and treatment often consist in lamivudine co-administered with other antiviral drugs such as nevirapine, lopinavir/ritonavir or zidovudine. Lamivudine freely crosses the human placenta and freely migrates into the breast-milk. The aim of this study is to review the lamivudine dosing, efficacy, safety, prevention of mother-to-infant transmission of hepatitis B virus, pharmacokinetics, interaction with drugs, prophylaxis, and treatment in infants and children, the transfer across the human placenta and the migration into the breast-milk.
    Research Article
    Sonali Gurav*, Niranjan Mahajan, Mahadev Gujar, Sharad Kamble
    The concept of gorgeousness and cosmetics is as ancient as mankind and society. So, they use various beauty products that have herbs to look pleasant and youthful. Common people are widely used Herbal cosmetics because of concept of fewer side effects and with a enhanced safety and protection profile. The present work was aimed to formulate herbal oil for general purpose (application in hairs) using various herbs. The formulated herbal oil was evaluated and various parameters such as viscosity, saponification value, pH etc. were determined and are reported in this paper.
    Herbal hair oils have always attracted considerable attention, when compared to synthetic drugs. Synthetic drugs may have side effects like local irritation, itching and burning sensation. They may cause dermatological reactions and systemic side effects like headache, dizziness etc. So, there is a need for development of herbal hair oil for potent hair growth and to prevent hair fall with no side effects.
    Gian Maria Pacifici*
    Milrinone inhibits human heart phosphodiesterase 3 and phosphodiesterase 4 with similar potency. By increasing cAMP concentration, they have similar actions as the β receptor agonists dobutamine and epinephrine, but tend to lower systematic and pulmonary vascular resistance more than do the catecholamines. The vasodilation due to milrinone is related to increased levels of cAMP in vascular smooth muscle. Milrinone is used for short term treatment of acute low cardiac output after cardiac surgery due to septic shock. Milrinone is administered by continuous intravenous infusion and its dosage consists in a loading dose followed by a maintenance infusion in infants and children. Milrinone is efficacy and safe in infants and children but it may induce adverse-effects. The effects of milrinone in infants and children have been extensively studied: milrinone improves oxygenation and myocardial performance, milrinone is used to treat pulmonary, ventricular dysfunction, and tachyarrhythmias. The pharmacokinetics of milrinone have been studied in infants and children and the elimination half-life is 3.1 hours in infants aged < 1 year and 1.9 hours in children. The treatment of infants and children with milrinone has been extensively studied: milrinone treats hypoxemic respiratory failure and reduces diastolic arterial pressure, milrinone has been successfully used in infants and children undergoing heart surgery, and milrinone prevents death or low cardiac output syndrome in children undergoing surgery for congenital heart disease. The aim of this study is to review the milrinone dosing, efficacy and safety, effects, adverse-effects, pharmacokinetics, and treatment in infants and children.
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