• Contact Us
  • Indexing
  • Submit Manuscript
  • Open Access
  • Journals
  • Home
  • ISSN: 2379-089X
    Volume 3, Issue 1
    Review Article
    Dennis RA Mans*, Alida D. Kent, and Henk DFH Schallig
    Abstract: The parasitic disease Leishmaniasis in its various clinical manifestations is one of the most serious public health threats in many parts of the world, its global prevalence and yearly incidence rates exceeding 12 million and 2.5 million cases, respectively, and its burden estimated at 2.4 million disability-adjusted life years. For these reasons, the World Health Organization has classified Leishmaniasis as a category 1 disease i.e., an emerging and/or uncontrolled disease. In the Republic of Suriname (South America), Cutaneous Leishmaniasis (CL) is so far the principal form of the disease. For a long time it was believed that Leishmania (Viannia) guyanensis was the only Leishmania species causing CL in the country. Furthermore, the vectors involved in its transmission were not exactly known, and animal reservoirs had not been identified. Lately, however, important new insights have been obtained in these fundamental biological aspects of CL in Suriname. This paper presents a few historical highlights of Leishmaniasis; addresses relevant epidemiological and etiological aspects of this disease; elaborates on the biology as well methods for diagnosis and available forms of treatment of this condition; then focuses on recent insights in these topics in Suriname; and concludes with possible future approaches on the treatment and diagnosis of CL in the country.
    David V. Gauvin*, Zachary J. Zimmermann, and Theodore J. Baird
    Drug deterrence should not be viewed as "abuse proof" or "diversion proof". If the abuse deterrent formulation (ADF) provides for a Cmax and half-life of parent compound that is conducive to maintain plasma opiate levels or abate drug withdrawal then compromising of the drug deterrence formulation seems irrelevant to the majority of street consumers - those that consume an opiate outside the scope of medical practice. It is an error in judgment to think that all opiate dependent street drug-seekers of pharmaceutical grade opioids are looking to inject snort, or smoke extracted drug product. Under the Comprehensive Drug Abuse and Control Act of 1970 (CSA) substances are controlled by chemical nomenclature and scheduled in one of 5 levels of controlled access to the drugs. The CSA does allow for differential scheduling of specially designed formulations of a given drug substance due to the reduced likelihood of access to the drug through ADF strategies. The inclusion of "special testing" in standard preclinical screening should be based on established and known trends and patterns of clandestine laboratory or street use of similar drug products. This review is intended to describe typical patterns of drug diversion and standardized methods used to administer the drug outside the scope of medical practice, or to divert for drug extraction. These may have relevance to the testing of new product formulations that are being developed as tamper-resistant or tamper-proof products with the intent of requesting differential scheduling.
    Research Article
    Vandana Saini, Sween, Vishal, Amita S. Dang, and Ajit Kumar*
    Voltage gated sodium channel (VGSC) is one of the widely distributed voltage gated ion channel among different species and has been found as different isoforms in humans. They are classified majorly on the basis of their sensitivity towards a potent neurotoxin - Tetrodotoxin (TTX) and have been attributed to many channelopathic diseases. The interactions of human VGSC (PDB 4DCK) with different neurotoxins (peptide and non-peptide) were studied using molecular docking method, to decipher the molecular interactions of these neurotoxins with gating patterns of VGSC. The study revealed that non-peptidic neurotoxins (TTX and STX) interacted loosely as compared to their peptidic counter parts (µContoxins (GIIIA, GIIIB, KIIIA and PIIIA), Hainatoxin I, III and IV) as revealed by their corresponding binding energies. MD-simulation of human VGSC was also studied for 10 ns and was observed to be coherent with earlier reports. Further in-silico deciphering of molecular events of VGSC and neurotoxins' interaction is being carried out by our group.
    Mayara Torquato Lima da Silva, Vinicius Jose da Silva Osterne, Clareane Avelino Simplicio Nobre, Renata Pinheiro Chaves, Ivanice Bezerra da Silva, Cleane Gomes Moreira, Maria Luciana Lira de Andrade, Celso Shiniti Nagano, Cintia Renata Costa Rocha, Rodrigo Bainy Leal, Jorge Luiz Martins, Benildo Sousa Cavada, and Kyria Santiago do Nascimento*
    Voltage gated sodium channel (VGSC) is one of the widely distributed voltage gated ion channel among different species and has been found as different isoforms in humans. They are classified majorly on the basis of their sensitivity towards a potent neurotoxin - Tetrodotoxin (TTX) and have been attributed to many channelopathic diseases. The interactions of human VGSC (PDB 4DCK) with different neurotoxins (peptide and non-peptide) were studied using molecular docking method, to decipher the molecular interactions of these neurotoxins with gating patterns of VGSC. The study revealed that non-peptidic neurotoxins (TTX and STX) interacted loosely as compared to their peptidic counter parts (µContoxins (GIIIA, GIIIB, KIIIA and PIIIA), Hainatoxin I, III and IV) as revealed by their corresponding binding energies. MD-simulation of human VGSC was also studied for 10 ns and was observed to be coherent with earlier reports. Further in-silico deciphering of molecular events of VGSC and neurotoxins' interaction is being carried out by our group.
    Short Communication
    Abdulghani Mohamed Alsamarai*, Amina Hamed Ahmed Alobaidi, Zainab Khalil Aljumaili, Mariam Mahmood Jasim, and Shaima Qatal
    Background: Cutaneous Leishmaniasis [CL] is still with epidemic and endemic epidemiological characteristics in Iraq.
    Aim: To illustrate if there is changes in epidemiological characteristics of Cutaneous Leishmaniasis in Iraq.
    Methods: Retrospective descriptive study and data gathered from records in 3 centres in Kirkuk during the period from April, 2015 to end of April, 2016.
    Results: The study included 571 cases of clinically diagnosed as CL. The age range of 415 cases was from 1 month to 72 years, with a mean of 21.64 ± 16.95 year. Of the total, 46.58% were female [266/571] and 53.52% were male. The prevalence of CL in Kirkuk city was 67/ 100,000 for clinically diagnosed cases and 18/100,000 for laboratory diagnosed cases.
    Conclusion: CL still represents a health care problem with medical and social impact in Iraq. Unavailability of WHO recommendation first - line treatment restricts health care delivery and worsens the problem. The surveillance system and establishment of diagnosis and treatment centres are warranted.
  • JSciMed Central Blogs
  • JSciMed Central welcomes back astronaut Scott Kelly and cosmonaut Mikhail Kornienko.
    Readmore...

    Wonder Women Tech not only disrupted the traditional conference model but innovatively changed the way conferences should be held.
    Readmore...

    JSciMed Central Peer-reviewed Open Access Journals
    About      |      Journals      |      Open Access      |      Special Issue Proposals      |      Guidelines      |      Submit Manuscript      |      Contacts
    Copyright © 2016 JSciMed Central All Rights Reserved
    Creative Commons Licence Open Access Publication by JSciMed Central is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.
    Based on a work at https://jscimedcentral.com/. Permissions beyond the scope of this license may be available at https://creativecommons.org/.