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  • ISSN: 2379-089X
    Volume 4, Issue 1
    Case Report
    Romina Schwarzlin*, Sejjad Salam and Nika Pušenjak
    Parkinson's disease is a progressive neurological brain disorder characterized by tremors and difficulty in walking, movements and coordination. The disorder is most frequently diagnosed in persons who are in their mid 60's and is more common in men than in women. Analyses of brain tissue from patients with Parkinson's disease implicate apoptosis-related DNA damage and gene activation in the death of dopamine neurons. A questions remains whether there exists an apoptotic switch, which can balance the cells to become either cancerous or to die and consequently governs the dopamine storage capacity in brain? However new findings show the importance of several plants and especially vegetarian diet on the progress of cancer and neurodegeneration such as Parkinson's disease as it was shown in our case of 64-year-old male patient. The patient managed to stabilize his state of Parkinson's disease by vegetarin diet and food supplements including chlorella, royal jelly, Siberian ginseng, cranberries, aloe vera and many more. The susceptibility to neurodegeneration was lower, what lead to higher capacity of brain to store dopamine. His quality of life has improved and he is able to control disease. He is again able to walk for long periods, perform normal work in the garden, walk on treadmil with inclination (up hill). Cognitive functions remained stable and can more easily express himself in words. It was shown also by other research groups that vegetables and fruits involve a number of molecules, which can bring apoptotic switch to balance and therefore increase dopamine storage in the cells, when used in adequate quantities.
    Research Article
    Gareth J Sanger*
    Metoclopramide was described in 1964 as an anti-emetic drug and stimulant of gastrointestinal motility. Dopamine D2 receptor antagonism explained the anti-emetic activity and was suggested to stimulate gastrointestinal motility. An important use of metoclopramide and other D2 receptor antagonists is to inhibit emesis caused by anti-cancer chemo radiotherapy. However, the use of new platinum-based anti-cancer drugs led to debilitating emesis, lasting for days and sometimes leading to refusal of treatment. Unlike conventional doses, higher doses of metoclopramide inhibited this severe emesis whereas subsequent trials with higher doses of other D2 receptor antagonists were unsuccessful. Studies using ferrets replicated these findings and then demonstrated the ability of 5-HT3 receptor antagonists to inhibit cisplatin-induced emesis, correlating with the known ability of higher concentrations of metoclopramide to antagonise at this receptor. Around the same time, the mechanism by which metoclopramide stimulates GI motility was shown to be independent of D2 and 5-HT3 receptor antagonism. A 'myenteric 5-HT-like receptor' was proposed, mediating the ability of metoclopramide to facilitate GI cholinergic activity. Later, this was characterised as the 5-HT4 receptor. Extensive drug discovery followed the unravelling of the biology of metoclopramide. The serendipitous discovery of this drug has therefore contributed to development of three new drug classes: selective (peripherally-restricted) antagonists at D2 and 5-HT3 receptors and selective agonists at the 5-HT4 receptor. The latter are used to treat idiopathic constipation. 5-HT3 receptor antagonists, together with dexamethasone and if necessary, NK1 receptor antagonists, prevent moderate-to-severe emesis during anti-cancer treatment and hence, began a revolution in cancer patient care. The ability of 5-HT3 receptor antagonists to cause mild constipation was used to treat diarrhoea-predominant irritable bowel syndrome, achieving clinical success but later associated with severe adverse events. Antagonists at the D2 receptor treat mild forms of emesis. Metoclopramide is still used as a gastric prokinetic and anti-emetic drug.
    Neetu Singh, Manish Kumar*, Shailendra Bhatt, Anuj Malik, and Vipin Saini
    The purpose of research work was to develop and optimize mucoadhesive microspheres of glibenclamide incorporated in in-situ gel for nasal delivery with the aim to enhance the residence time and improve therapeutic efficacy. Chitosan (mucoadhesive) based microspheres of glibenclamide were prepared by emulsification-crosslinking method. Glutaraldehyde was used as crosslinking agent. A 32 factorial design was employed for preparation of microspheres wherein the concentration of polymer and crosslinking agent were selected as independent variables while particle size of microspheres, in vitro mucoadhesion and % cumulative drug permeation were the dependent variables. Microspheres were evaluated with respect to the production yield, particle size, entrapment efficiency, swelling property, in vitro mucoadhesion and % cumulative drug release. Formulation F8 was found to be optimized. The optimized formulation F8 was then formulated into thermo reversible in-situ gel. The prepared micro particulate in-situ nasal gel was mucoadhesive in nature which adhere onto the mucus and increase the residence time within the nasal cavity.
    Short Notes
    Abolfazl Yazdanpanah, Maryam Ghaffari, and Fathollah Moztarzadeh*
    While the combination of hyperthermia and chemotherapy is a reasonable result of its usage with radiotherapy, information around their interactions is far less well studied (Figure 1). Meanwhile exclusive experimental data is now only available in vitro. For the purposes of this application, cytotoxicity of chemotherapeutic agents are catechized into three types [1].
    Jayesh V Trivedi*
    Commercial Chitosan is derived from the shells of shrimp and other sea crustaceans. Chitosan is produced commercially by deacetylation of chitin, derived from crabs and cell wall of Fungi. Chitosan’s properties allow it to rapidly clot blood, and have recently gained approval as a haemostatic agent in developed countries. Chitosan is also useful in transdermal delivery system. In orthopaedics practice it is used as bone filling material.
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